"Contraceptive" and "Morning After" Pills: Women and Young Girls, You're On Your Own

Dianne N. Irving
Copyright April 5, 2013
Reproduced with Permission

"When _I_ use a word," Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, "it means just what I choose it to mean - neither more nor less." "The question is", said Alice, "whether you CAN make words mean so many different things." "The question is, "said Humpty Dumpty," which is to be master -- that's all." (Through the Looking-Glass, by Lewis Carroll [Charles Dodgson])

I. Introduction

FACTS: Plan B does not "prevent a pregnancy". It is an abortifacient. And it causes death, disease and injury to women and girls and to their unborn children. (But shhhh, don't tell anybody; it's a secret!)

One does wonder how a U.S. federal judge can get away with ordering that the "morning after" pill must be available over the counter for all ages without a prescription, knowing what the whole world knows by now. The same goes for such supposed medical "professions" as the American Medical Association, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics. As The New York Times put it, "They contend that the restrictions effectively keep many adolescents and younger teenagers from being able to use a safe drug in a timely way to prevent pregnancy." [Pam Belluck, "Judge Orders Morning-After Pill Available for All Ages", New York Times (April 5, 2013), at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/06/health/judge-orders-fda-to-make-morning-after-pill-available-over-the-counter-for-all-ages.html] Not.

The purpose of this article is to very briefly prove and document once again -- for women and young girls -- that: (1) The whole world now knows how dangerous these hormone-laden pills are to the women who consume them. (2) These pills do not prevent pregnancy. They just prevent the already existing human embryo who is traveling through the woman's or young girl's fallopian tube (uterine tube) from eventually implanting in the uterus. Thus they are, by definition, and as admitted in their product flyers and websites, abortifacient. (3) These drugs also cause diseases and "gender bending" in their children if exposed while the woman finds that she really is pregnant. And, (4) grab an iPhone app for free from the government that can enlighten you about the long-known real objective scientific facts of how those unborn children develop and grow right from the get-go. (Might pass this article on to your friends via social media -- they're probably curious too, and have the legal right to be "informed"!)

For women -- not to mention federal judges and medical "professions" -- to continue to close their eyes to the empirical facts is even more dangerous than commonly realized or acknowledged. We are not just witnessing a "social experiment"; we are also witnessing a massive medical clinical trial with untold numbers of vulnerable women and young girls across the country as unwitting participants. Whatever happened to "informed consent" -- and how can young girls even give it? Can federal judges and officers of medical "professions" be sued for negligence, scientific fraud, and injuries incurred? Hmmm.

II. "Contraceptive" and "Morning After" Pills Are Dangerous to Your Health, and Are Abortifacient

While the federal judge, as well as the American Medical Association, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics, contend that "the restrictions effectively keep many adolescents and younger teenagers from being able to use a safe drug in a timely way to prevent pregnancy", it is not true that these drugs are "safe". Far from it.

Just for starters, try a little Googling. Consider the recent findings and rulings of the French National Agency for the Safety of Drugs and Health Products (ANSM). The agency compared the health risks to the woman of first and second generation contraceptive pills, no less, to third and fourth generation oral contraceptives and found that the deaths of 20 French women per year were linked to contraceptive pill use [Thaddeus Baklinski, "French study: 20 deaths per year attributed to contraceptive pill use; law suit", LifeSiteNews.com, at: http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/french-study-20-deaths-per-year-attributed-to-contraceptive-pill-use]. The agency also found that between 2000 and 2011, contraceptive pills were linked to an average of 2,529 annual cases of venous thromboembolism (blood clots). The health watchdog also found that the newer generation pills caused more than twice as many deaths as the earlier pills.

What you don't know can hurt you. Since federal officials and "professional" medical societies continue to ignore the serious consequences of even the usual ole "contraceptive" pills for women, to educate themselves women should at least read some of even the most current reports about these dangerous effects: E.g., Charlotte Boitiaux and Rachel Holman, "French lawsuit reignites debate on contraceptive pill", France24.com, at: http://www.france24.com/en/20130104-france-contraceptive-pill-fears-controversy; "World Contraception Day sponsors silent about deadly side effects", at: http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/world-contraception-day-sponsors-silent-about-deadly-side-effects/; "FDA announces review of birth control pills over serious blood clot risks", at: http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/fda-announces-review-of-birth-control-pills-over-serious-blood-clot-risks; "UK teenager dies from complications related to oral contraceptive", at: http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/uk-teenager-dies-from-complications-related-to-oral-contraceptive/; "Swiss Woman's Death Linked to Hormonal Contraceptive", at: http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/archive//ldn/2009/oct/09101605; "Women Sue Birth Control Manufacturer over Serious Health Issues", at: http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/archive//ldn/2010/feb/10022209; "Health Canada warns birth control pill has high risk of clots", at: http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/health-canada-warns-birth-control-pill-has-high-risk-of-clots/.

And given that the multiple mechanisms of action of the "contraceptive" pills are purposefully multiplied extensively in the "morning after" pills, including Plan B, the results in terms of even more extensive physical damage to the women taking them are to be expected. Yet why are such "side effects" so often minimalized? See, e.g., the CDC report on Plan B and a critique of it: Jacqueline Harvey, "More People Exposed to STDs Thanks to Higher Plan B Drug Use", LifeSiteNews.com (March 29, 2013), at: http://www.lifenews.com/2013/03/29/more-people-exposed-to-stds-thanks-to-higher-plan-b-drug-use/; see also full critique, at: http://reproductiveresearchaudit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/HarveyCritique11EC.pdf. But shhhh, don't tell anybody; it's a secret!

Nor should women try to convince themselves that such drugs are "just" contraceptive and not causing the death of their own new unborn children, just because the federal judge, as well as the American Medical Association, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics, tell you this.

As noted many years ago, the "morning after" pills are definitely abortifacient:

Postcoital birth control pills ("morning after pills") may be prescribed in an emergency (e.g., following sexual abuse). Ovarian hormones (estrogen) taken in large doses within 72 hours after sexual intercourse usually prevent implantation of the blastocyst, probably by altering tubal motility, interfering with corpus luteum function, or causing abnormal changes in the endometrium. These hormones prevent implantation, not fertilization. Consequently, they should not be called contraceptive pills. Conception occurs but the blastocyst does not implant. It would be more appropriate to call them "contraimplantation pills". Because the term "abortion" refers to a premature stoppage of a pregnancy, the term "abortion" could be applied to such an early termination of pregnancy." (emphases added) (p. 532) (KEITH L. MOORE and T. V. N. PERSAUD, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed. -- use this edition only)(Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1998) (emphases added)

The last section of this article (below) on the long-known accurate objective scientific facts of human embryology should make this abundantly clear. (But shhhh, don't tell anybody; it's a secret!)

III. The Hormones in These Pills are also Causing Infertility and Androgyny

Say what? Let me here identify and articulate what no one seems to want to talk about -- i.e., the also empirically documented scientific facts that the powerful hormones used in both the "contraceptive" pills and the "morning-after" pills can cause infertility in the women taking them, as well as cause androgyny in any embryos they may be carrying. "Androgyny", caused by such hormones and drugs, is the condition of a person becoming both male and female, or sometimes referred to as sexually "neutral".

So, in other words, a new embryo can be reproduced normally as a specific genetic sex (male or female), but when exposed to these hormones and drugs those genes are mis-directed, and cause tissues and organs of the opposite sex to develop.

This has recently been documented by a startling recent UN report (2013) identifying current "contraceptives", as well as over 370 other drugs/chemicals, as causing "gender-bending" and serious diseases in embryos that women may be carrying, e.g.:

"The UN study, which is the most comprehensive report on EDCs [endoctrine disruptive chemicals] to date, highlights some associations between exposure to EDCs and health problems including the potential for such chemicals to contribute to the development of non-descended testes in young males, breast cancer in women, prostate cancer in men, developmental effects on the nervous system in children, attention deficit /hyperactivity in children and thyroid cancer." [Effects of human exposure to hormone-disrupting chemicals examined in landmark UN report, at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2013/hormone_disrupting_20130219/en/index.html; see also http://www.who.int/ceh/publications/endocrine/en/index.html] (emphases added)

The documentation for this has been in human embryology and even in IVF textbooks for decades. Not new. For example:

Diethylstibestrol (DES) intake by the mother can be followed by postpubertal vaginal adenosis. The risk of vaginal carcinoma, however, is exceedingly small. Exposure of a female conceptus to DES, which can act as an estrogen, can lead to bisexuality. In a male conceptus, the secretion of testosterone can be suppressed, resulting in hypomasculinization. (p. 122) ... embryo has DNA info for both sexes: Whether embryos have an XX or an XY chromosomal complement, they are each capable of producing either a female or a male reproductive system. (p. 317) [Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001)] (emphases added)

Abnormalities in the size and shape of the uterus can also cause infertility problems. Sometimes women develop an abnormally shaped uterus as a result of exposure to certain drugs their mothers took during pregnancy. A classic example of this disorder is the "T-shaped" uterus and significantly smaller uterine cavity often found in women whose mothers took diethylstilbestrol (DES) during pregnancy. (p. 32) ... Certain drugs or chemicals in the environment may also inhibit sperm production and function. And as in women, drugs such as DES can also produce abnormalities in the male offspring's reproductive system. (p. 33) ... Once considered largely under control because of the discovery and availability of proper medication, venereal diseases that damage the reproductive system are on the rise again. One of the major causes of this is the increased availability of effective birth control methods, which has undoubtedly contributed to a more open approach toward sexual activity. Consequently, both men and .women often have relatively large numbers of sexual partners. The unfortunate result has been a significant increase in sexually transmitted diseases. (p. 3) ... Organic pelvic disease refers to the presence of structural damage in the woman's pelvis due to trauma, inflammation, tumors, congenital defects, or degenerative disease. The most common cause of infertility in a woman is damaged or blocked fallopian tubes that prevent the egg and sperm from uniting. Sexually transmitted diseases are a major cause of tubal scarring and blockage. In addition, scar tissue that forms after pelvic surgery may also lead to fertility problems. (pp. 30-31) [Geoffrey Sher, Virginia Marriage Davis, Jean Stoess, In Vitro Fertilization: The A.R.T. of Making Babies (New York: Facts On File, 1998)] (emphases added)

Why doesn't the federal judge, or the American Medical Association, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics, tell you this? Are they just oblivious to these long-known, long-documented, and now internationally documented objective scientific facts? (Of course not, but it's a secret!)

IV. The Long-Known Objective Scientific Facts: Pregnancy Begin When the Human Being Begins -- at Fertilization in the Woman's Fallopian Tube, not at Implantation in her Uterus

While the federal judge, as well as the American Medical Association, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics, contend that "the restrictions effectively keep many adolescents and younger teenagers from being able to use a safe drug in a timely way to prevent pregnancy", this is also scientifically, empirically, not true.

While it is true to say, scientifically, that in the use of artificial reproductive technologies only the woman isn't "pregnant" until the 5-7 day old embryo has been implanted into her uterus by a technician, that does not mean that the embryo that they are implanting doesn't exist yet. It is also true scientifically that the embryo already exists in the IVF lab's petri dish. But in normal human sexual reproduction -- as is involved in issues about the use of "contraceptive" or "morning after" pills -- a woman is "pregnant" long before implantation. Scientifically speaking, as soon as the sperm makes first contact and fuses with the woman's oocyte at the beginning of fertilization a new living human organism -- a one-celled human being -- begins to exist, and then just continues to develop bigger. And this takes place in the woman's fallopian tube -- not in her uterus. So in normal human reproduction, a woman is "pregnant" once fertilization has begun. By the time the embryo makes it to her uterus to implant, that embryo is already 5-7 days old. If that embryo is then prevented from implanting by the use of these pills, then the embryo dies -- and that is abortion. (But shhhh, don't tell anybody; it's a secret!)

V. What Every Woman and Young Girl Needs to Know About How a New Human Embryo Comes To Be

Notice: For women and young girls only! Mystery solved!

What is not a secret is that in normal human reproduction (fertilization), a woman becomes pregnant when her oocyte is fertilized by a sperm while these cells are in her fallopian tube. Fertilization is also when a new living sexually reproduced human being -- a one-cell organism (not just a "cell") -- begins to exist. Thus at fertilization -- not at implantation -- the woman is first pregnant, and a new human embryo first begins to exist.

The following long-known and internationally documented direct quotes, similar to any found in any genuine human embryology textbooks, make this crystal clear (don't bother with molecular biology texts, as their authors are not academically credentialed human embryologists). Although some human embryology texts may use "simple" terms in a chapter, every human embryology textbook is still professionally required to contain the full chart of The Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development, and each simple term used must have a superscript placed above that term that corresponds to the proper Carnegie Stage number -- so that students can go to the Carnegie Chart for more precise language and details. Examples of the objective scientific facts accurately defining normal human "pregnancy" and when a new sexually reproduced human embryo begins to exist include the following: (just push through it!)

"Human pregnancy begins with the fusion of an egg and a sperm, but a great deal of preparation [recedes this event. First both male and female sex cells must pass through a long series of changes (gametogenesis) that convert them genetically and phenotypically into mature gametes, which are capable of participating in the process of fertilization. Next, the gametes must be released from the gonads and make their way to the upper part of the uterine tube, where fertilization normally takes place. ... Finally, the fertilized egg, now properly called an embryo, must make its way into the uterus ....". (p. 2); ... Fertilization age: dates the age of the embryo from the time of fertilization. (p. 23) ... In the female, sperm transport begins in the upper vagina and ends in the ampulla of the uterine tube [fallopian tube] where the spermatozoa make contact with the ovulated egg. (p. 27) ... After the eighth week of pregnancy the period of organogenesis (embryonic period) is largely completed, and the fetal period begins." (p. 447). ... The sex of the future embryo is determined by the chromosomal complement of the spermatozoon. (If the sperm contains 22 autosomes and an X chromosome, the embryo will be a genetic female, and if it contains 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome, the embryo will be a male.) ... [Bruce M. Carlson, Human Embryology & Developmental Biology (St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1999), p. 32] (emphases added)

Although life is a continuous process, fertilization ... is a critical landmark because, under ordinary circumstances, a new, genetically distinct human organism is formed ... Fertilization is the procession of events that begins when a spermatozoon makes contact with a secondary oocyte or its investments, and ends with the intermingling of maternal and paternal chromosomes at metaphase of the first mitotic division of the zygote. ... Fertilization takes place normally in the ampulla (lateral end) of the uterine tube. [Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (3rd ed.)(New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001), p. 31] (emphases added)

Human development is a continuous process that begins when an oocyte (ovum) from a female is fertilized by a sperm (or spermatozoon) from a male. (p. 2); ... but the embryo begins to develop as soon as the oocyte is fertilized. (p. 2); ... [This] is the beginning of a new human being (i.e., an embryo). (p. 2); ... Human development begins at fertilization, the process during which a male gamete or sperm ... unites with a female gamete or oocyte ... to form a single cell [embryo]. This highly specialized, totipotent cell marks the beginning of each of us as a unique individual. (p. 18) ... The usual site of fertilization is the ampulla of the uterine tube [fallopian tube], its longest and widest part. If the oocyte is not fertilized here, it slowly passes along the tube to the uterus, where it degenerates and is resorbed. Although fertilization may occur in other parts of the tube, it does not occur in the uterus. ... Human development begins when an oocyte is fertilized. Fertilization ... begins with contact between a sperm and a oocyte and ends with the intermingling of maternal and paternal chromosomes ... of the zygote, a unicellular embryo. (p. 34) ... The embryo's chromosomes sex is determined at fertilization by the kind of sperm (S or Y) that fertilizes the ovum; hence it is the father rather than the mother whose gamete determines the sex of the embryo. (p. 37) [Keith Moore and T.V.N. Persaud, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed. only) (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1998)] (emphases added)

If you can't get to a library, you can even discover this by going online to The Virtual Human Embryo website [http://www.ehd.org/virtual-human-embryo/about.php?stage=1] -- definitely not to be confused with The Visible Embryo. The Virtual Human Embryo Project (VHE) was originally developed as a collaboration between human embryologist Dr. Raymond Gasser at Louisiana State University Health Science Center (LSUHSC) and the Human Developmental Anatomy Center (HDAC) in Washington D.C. [http://www.medicalmuseum.mil/index.cfm?p=collections.hdac.anatomy.index] The overall aim of the project is to make the Carnegie collection, which is housed at the HDAC, accessible for research and teaching of human embryology. Here are just a few of the long-known (like, for over 120 years!) objective scientific facts relevant to the issues of "contraceptive" and "morning-after" pills, and what they kill -- the new living human embryo. Stage 1 describes the embryo at the beginning of the process of fertilization (not the "zygote" at the end of the process) -- not just a "cell" or a "bunch of tissue", and this takes place in the woman's or girl's fallopian tube (uterine tube), not in her uterus -- long before "implantation" (5-7 days post-fertilization): (all emphases added)

Stage 1 is the unicellular embryo that contains unique genetic material and is an individually specific cell that has the potential to develop into all of the subsequent stages of a human being. It is the beginning of embryonic life and ontogenetic development that starts when an oocyte, arrested in metaphase of meiosis II, is penetrated by a sperm. This is the first event of fertilization. The embryo has a postfertilization age of approximately one day, is between 0.1 to 0.15 mm in diameter and weighs approximately 0.004 mg.

Fertilization is a series of events that begins when a sperm makes contact with an oocyte and ends with the intermingling of paternal (male) and maternal (female) chromosomes on the spindle at metaphase of the first mitotic division of the single cell. The events of fertilization require just over 24 hrs. to complete and normally take place in the ampulla of the uterine tube.

Stage 1 is divided into three substages; a, b and c. Stage 1a is referred to as the primordial embryo since all the genetic material necessary for the new individual, plus some redundant chromosomes, is now within a single plasmalemma (cell membrane). From the perspective of the female gamete it has also been named the penetrated oocyte. The fertilizing sperm has passed through the zona (capsula) pellucida and its plasmalemma has fused with that of the oocyte.

Penetration activates the embryo into resuming its arrested meiosis II and after anaphase it enters telophase with the expulsion of the redundant chromosomes as a second polar body. This marks the beginning of Stage 1b in which the single-cell is referred to as the pronuclear embryo. From the perspective of the female gamete it has also been named the ootid because its female component is haploid like a spermatid. However, in the pronuclear embryo there are two separate haploid components: one maternal, or female, pronucleus and one paternal, or male, pronucleus. The pronuclei move toward each other and eventually compress their envelopes where they lie adjacent near the center of the cell. Stage 1c is the last phase of fertilization and exists for a relatively short period. The pronuclear envelopes disappear and the parental chromosomes that were contained in separate pronuclei come together in a process called syngamy thereby establishing the genome of the embryo. The one-cell Stage 1c embryo is named the syngamic embryo or zygote. The chromosomes assume positions on the rapidly formed first mitotic spindle in preparation for cleavage. [The Virtual Human Embryo, at: http://www.ehd.org/virtual-human-embryo/intro.php?stage=1]

And if you're really a curious kid, see what else happens with the new human embryo before implantation (about 5-7 days post-fertilization):

Stage 2: http://www.ehd.org/virtual-human-embryo/intro.php?stage=2

Stage 3: http://www.ehd.org/virtual-human-embryo/intro.php?stage=3-1

Stage 4 is reserved for the attaching blastocyst that is adhering to the endometrial lining of the uterus. The attaching process is called adplantation and heralds the onset of implantation. Stage 4 embryos have an estimated postfertilization age of approximately 6 days. http://www.ehd.org/virtual-human-embryo/intro.php?stage=4

Stage 5: http://www.ehd.org/virtual-human-embryo/intro.php?stage=5a-1

Stage 6: http://www.ehd.org/virtual-human-embryo/intro.php?stage=6

To investigate all 23 embryonic stages (you can even buy a cool DVD of this), go to: https://www.ehd.org/virtual-human-embryo/.

VI: The Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development

Briefly, the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development have been around since 1942! Not new! There is even now a free iPhone app from the government that you can download for free: http://apps.usa.gov/embryo.shtml. I guess neither the federal judge, nor the American Medical Association, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics, know about it. Sad. (It's a secret!).

As noted, the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development are found at the National Museum of Health and Medicine, Human Developmental Anatomy Center, in Washington, D.C. They were first instituted in 1942, and have been updated continuously since then by the international nomenclature committee on human embryology (the Terminologia Embryologica Committee, or FIPAT), consisting of 20-24 Ph.D.'s in human embryology from around the world.

For history buffs, the first to study the human embryo systematically was Wilhelm His, Sr., who established the basis of reconstruction, i.e., the assembling of three-dimensional form from microscopic sections. His, who has been called the "Vesalium of human embryology," published his three-volume masterpiece Anatomie menschlicher Embryonen in 1880-85 [His, Vogel, Leipzig]. In it the human embryo was studied as a whole for the first time internationally. A detailed Handbook of Human Embryology by Keibel and Mall appeared in 1910-12. Franklin P. Mall, who studied under His, established the Carnegie Embryological Collection in Baltimore and was the first person to stage human embryos (in 1914). Mall's collection soon became the most important repository of human embryos in the world and has ever since served as a "Bureau of Standards" for the science of human embryology. Mall's successor, George L. Streeter, laid down the basis of the currently used staging system for human embryos (1942-48), which was instituted in 1942, completed by O'Rahilly (1973) and revised by O'Rahilly and Muller (1987). [See history of Carnegie Collection, at: http://www.medicalmuseum.mil/index.cfm?p=collections.hdac.collections.burdi; see also, Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001); also, O'Rahilly and Muller, ibid., (3rd ed., 1994), p. 3]. The most recent updating of the Carnegie Stages (Jan. 2012) by the international nomenclature committee on human embryology, i.e., the Terminologia Embryologica Committee (FIPAT), is now also online and accessible on the internet (although not as "user friendly").

For more details about the institution of the Carnegie Stages in 1942, as well as the full Chart of the Carnegie Stages:
-- See the National Museum of Health and Medicine (NMHM): http://www.medicalmuseum.mil/
-- See the current website of the NMHM's Human Development Anatomy Center: http://www.medicalmuseum.mil/index.cfm?p=collections.hdac.index. This is also the home of the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development.
-- See Chart of all 23 Stages of the early developing human embryo, at: http://www.medicalmuseum.mil/index.cfm?p=collections.hdac.anatomy.index. Click into the "textbook" at the bottom left side of the screen to access more extensive details of each stage and the extensive scientific references.

For those who are really curious, the documentation about "pregnancy" and when a new sexually reproduced human being begins to exist by means of fertilization is found in the first few Carnegie Stages: (all emphases added)

Stage 1

Embryonic life commences with fertilization, and hence the beginning of that process may be taken as the point de depart of stage 1. Despite the small size (ca. 0.1 mm) and weight (ca. 0.004 mg) of the organism at fertilization, the embryo is "schon ein individual-spezifischer Mensch" (Blechschmidt, 1972). ... Fertilization is the procession of events that begins when a spermatozoon makes contact with an oocyte or its investments and ends with the intermingling of maternal and paternal chromosomes at metaphase of the first mitotic division of the zygote (Brackett et al., 1972). Fertilization sensu stricto involves the union of developmentally competent gametes realized in an appropriate environment to result in the formation of a viable embryo capable of normal further development (Tesarík, 1986). Fertilization, which takes place normally in the ampulla of the uterine tube, includes (a) contact of spermatozoa with the zona pellucida of an oocyte, penetration of one or more spermatozoa through the zona pellucida and the ooplasm, swelling of the spermatozoal head and extrusion of the second polar body, (b) the formation of the male and female pronuclei, and (c) the beginning of the first mitotic division, or cleavage, of the zygote. ... The three phases (a, b, and c) referred to above will be included here under stage 1, the characteristic feature of which is unicellularity. The term "ovum," which has been used for such disparate structures as an oocyte and a 3-week embryo, has no scientific usefulness and is not used here. Indeed, strictly speaking, "the existence of the ovum ... is impossible" (Franchi, 1970). The term "egg" is best reserved for a nutritive object frequently seen on the breakfast table. [http://www.medicalmuseum.mil/assets/documents/collections/hdac/stage01.pdf]

Stage 2

Stage 2 comprises specimens from 2 cells up to the appearance of the blastocystic (or segmentation) cavity. ... The age at stage 2 is believed to be approximately 1½-3 postovulatory days. The range is probably l-5 days (Sundström, Nilsson, and Liedholm, 1981). ... The organism proceeds along the uterine tube by means not entirely understood (reviewed by Adams, 1960). It leaves the tube and enters the uterine cavity during the third or fourth day after ovulation, when probably 8-12 cells are present, and when the endometrium is early in the secretory phase (corresponding to the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle). It has been shown experimentally (in the mouse, rat, and rabbit) that a blastomere isolated from the mammalian 2 cell organism is capable of forming a complete embryo. Separation of the early blastomeres is believed to account for about one-third of all cases of monozygotic twinning in the human (Corner, 1955). [This is a natural form of a-sexual human reproduction (without the immediate use of fertilization), a form of cloning called "twinning", producing "identical twins". Also performed artificially in IVF/ART research labs and "infertility" clinics to provide extra embryos for research and infertility treatments. -- DNI] [http://www.medicalmuseum.mil/assets/documents/collections/hdac/stage02.pdf]

Stage 3

Stage 3 consists of the free (that is, unattached) blastocyst, a term used as soon as a cavity (the blastocystic, or segmentation, cavity) can be recognized by light microscopy. ... The blastocyst is the hollow mass of cells from the initial appearance of the cavity (stage 3) to immediately before the completion of implantation at a subsequent stage [in vivo]. ... Duplication of the inner cell mass probably accounts for most instances of monozygotic twinning (Corner, 1955; Bulmer, 1970). ... In vitro, "many blastocysts fail to hatch fully from their zona pellucida," and "two separate embryos could form if the inner cell mass was bisected during hatching" (Edwards, Mettler, and Walters, 1986). [http://www.medicalmuseum.mil/assets/documents/collections/hdac/stage03.pdf]

Stage 4

Stage 4, the onset of implantation, is reserved for the attaching blastocyst, which is probably 5-6 days old. ... Implantation is the specific process that leads to the formation of a specialized, intimate cellular contact between the trophoblast and the endometrium, or other tissue in the case of ectopic implantation (Denker,m1983). Implantation is a highly complicated and ill-understood phenomenon "by which the conceptus is transported to its site of attachment, held there, oriented properly, and then attached by adhesion, trophoblastic penetration, spread, proliferation, envelopment of vessels, and other developments of the placenta, both conceptal and maternal parts" (Boving, 1963). In this broad sense, implantation includes at least stages 4 and 5. Implantation, then, includes (1) dissolution of the zona pellucida, and contact and attachment (adhesion) between the blastocyst and the endometrium, (2) penetration, and (3) migration of the blastocyst through the endometrium. [http://www.medicalmuseum.mil/assets/documents/collections/hdac/stage04.pdf]

Stage 5

Stage 5 comprises embryos that are implanted to a varying degree but are previllous, i.e., that do not yet show definite chorionic villi. Such embryos are believed to be 7-12 days old. ... Implantation, which began in stage 4, is the characteristic feature of stage 5. It should be appreciated that both maternal and embryonic tissues are involved in the complex process of implantation: "in the normal process they are mutually supporting and neither can be regarded as chiefly responsible" (Boyd and Hamilton,1970). An amniotic cavity is found by stage 5. If duplication of the embryo occurs after the differentiation of the amnion, the resulting monozygotic twins should be monochorial and monoamniotic (fig. 5-2). It has been estimated that the frequency of monoamniotic twins among monozygotic twins is about 4 percent (Bulmer,1970). About once in every 400 monozygotic twin pregnancies, the duplication is incomplete and conjoined ("Siamese") twins (e.g., the second specimen of Shaw,1932) result. [http://www.medicalmuseum.mil/assets/documents/collections/hdac/stage05.pdf]

To see the extraordinary degree of development of the early human embryo by Stage 6 (13 postovulatory days), see: http://www.medicalmuseum.mil/assets/documents/collections/hdac/stage06.pdf.

Now, why doesn't the federal judge, or the American Medical Association, or the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, or the American Academy of Pediatrics know about these objective scientific facts that have been known for over 120 years??

*** VII: Food For Thought