Human Embryology and Church Teachings

III. Bibliography Cont'd

D. Philosophy and Theology

Aristotle, Analytica Posteriora, in The Basic Works of Aristotle edited by Richard McKeon (New York 1941), 2.19, 100a 3-9. See also: Aristotle, Categories, in Aristotle by Sir David Ross (New York: 1985), 20-21.

Aristotle, (a) Physica, (b) Metaphysica, (c) De Anima, in The Basic Works of Aristotle, edited by Richard McKeon (New York 1941).

George Boas, "Rene Descartes", in Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1967); Vol. 1, pp. 344-354.

Boethius, "Contra Eutychen et Nestorium," in Boethius: The Theological Tractates and the Consolation of Philosophy, edited and translated by H.F. Stewart, E.K. Rand, and S.J. Tester (Cambridge, Mass. 1973).

W. Jerome Bracken, "Is the Early Embryo a Person?" The Linacre Quarterly 68, no. 1 (February 2001): 62, 66.

William Brennan, Dehumanizing the Vulnerable: When Word Games Take Lives (Niagra Falls, New York: Life Cycle Books, Ltd., November 2000).

Georges Cardinal Cottier, quoted by W. Redzioch, in Inside the Vatican 14, no. 4 (April 2006): 32.

Kevin Doran, "Person-A Key Concept for Ethics," The Linacre Quarterly 56, no. 4 (1989): 38-49.

Daniel Garber and Margaret Wilson, "Mind-body problems", in Daniel Garber, Michael Ayers, Roger Ariew, The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-century Philosophy, Vol. 1 (London: Cambridge University Press, 1998), esp. pp. 833-867.

Mary Louise Gill, Aristotle on Substance (Princeton University Press, 1989), esp. p. 173.

Etienne Gilson, Etudes sur le role de la pensee medievale dans la formation du systeme cartesien, "Etudes de Philosophy medievale, XIII (Paris: J. Vrin, 1930), pp. 1-336.

Marjorie Grene, A Portrait of Aristotle (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1963), esp. p. 175.

Gary Hatfield, Descartes and the Meditations (London: Routledge, 2002), pp. 1-353, esp. pp. 3ff.

S. Heaney, "Aquinas and the Presence of the Human Rational Soul in the Early Embryo," The Thomist 56, no. 1 (January 1992): 19-48.

David B. Hershenov and Rose J. Koch, "How a Hylomorphic Metaphysics Constrains the Abortion Debate," National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 5, no. 4 (Winter 2005): 751-764.

Dianne N. Irving, Philosophical and Scientific Analysis of the Nature of the Early Human Embryo (Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 1991): 1-400; addresses in painful detail the philosophical, scientific and logical errors prevalent in over 28 different bioetics arguments for "delayed personhood"; see especially "Appendix A", documenting line-by-line how Aristotle's odd "delayed personhood" conclusions (and thus also those of Thomas Acquinas, whose realist system of philosophy is similar to but also different from that of Aristotle, and who unfortunately follwed Aristotle in this Platonic streak) in a couple of his treatises directly contradicts the vast majority of his other treaties that would have required this realist philosopher/biologist to argue philosophically for "immediate personhood" instead, as also acknowledged and documented by many Aristotelean scholars for centuries (see works of Gill, of Witt, and of Greene listed in this bibliography). Obviously neither Aristotle nor Thomas had access to the current known accurate objective scientific facts of human embryology -- the systematically required "starting point" for any realist philosopher -- as documented now, e.g., in the work of Wilhelm His (1883), the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development, the many current human embryology text books listed above (in the section on "Science"), etc. Rather, both held that there were only four material elements in the material world: air, earth, fire and water. This has serious implications today for those who persist in using either Aristotle or Thomas to argue for "delayed personhood". "Appendix A" is in process of re-publication individually.

Dianne N. Irving (a), "Scientific and Philosophical Expertise: An Evaluation of the Arguments on 'Personhood'," The Linacre Quarterly 60, no. 1 (February 1993): 18-46; PubMed ID 16035170; (a mini-summary of her doctoral dissertation) available from (accessed February 5, 2008).

Dianne N. Irving, "Abortion: Correct Application of Natural Law Theory," The Linacre Quarterly 67, no. 1 (February 2000a): 45-55, PubMed ID: 12199284, available from (accessed February 5, 2008).

George Peter Klubertanz, The Philosophy of Human Nature (New York 1953).

George Peter Klubertanz, Introduction to the Philosophy of Being (New York 1963): 293-298.

Thomas K. Nelson, "A Human Being Must Be a Person," The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 7, no. 2 (Summer 2007): 293-314.

Josef Pieper, Abuse of Language - Abuse of Power (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1992), pp. 7, 18-20, 34-35.

Jean Porter and Mark Johnson, "Quaestio Disputata-Delayed Hominization: Reflections on Some Recent Catholic Claims for Delayed Hominization," Theological Studies 56 (1995): 743-763.

Augustine Regan, "The Human Conceptus and Personhood," Studia Moralia 30 (1992): 122.

E. Rossini, "Engineering Embryos to Fail?" Catholic World Report 16, no. 9 (Oct. 2006): 26.

David L. Schindler, "Agere sequitur esse: What Does It Mean? A Reply to Father Austriaco," Communio 32, no. 4 (Winter 2005): 820.

K. Schmitz, "Immateriality Past and Present," Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 52 (1978): 3.

Norman Kemp Smith, Studies in the Cartesian Philosophy (London: Macmillan 1902), revised (New York: Garland, 1987), pp. 1-276; see also, New Studies in the Philosophy of Descartes (London: Macmillan, 1952), revised (New York: Garland, 1987), pp. 1-369.

Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province (Westminster, Md. 1981).

Thomas Aquinas, On Being and Essence, translated by Armand Maurer (Toronto 1983).

Thomas Aquinas, The Division and Method of the Sciences, translated by Armand Maurer (Toronto 1986).

Thomas Aquinas, Commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics, Bk. VIII, lect.1, edited by Cathala, Nos. 1688-1689, in Klubertanz 1963.

Frederick Wilhelmsen, Man's Knowledge of Reality: An Introduction to Thomistic Epistemology (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.1956).

Charlotte Witt, Substance and Essence in Aristotle (New York: Cornell University Press, 1989).

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