Why Accurate Human Embryology Is Needed To Evaluate Current Trends In Research Involving Stem Cells, Genetic Engineering, Synthetic Biology and Nanotechnology


1 Court of Justice of the European Union, PRESS RELEASE No 112/11, Luxembourg (October 18, 2011), Judgment in Case C-34/10, "Oliver Brstle v Greenpeace e.V.": "A process which involves removal of a stem cell from a human embryo at the blastocyst stage, entailing the destruction of that embryo, cannot be patented. The use of human embryos for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes which are applied to the human embryo and are useful to it is patentable, but their use for purposes of scientific research is not patentable", at: http://curia.europa.eu/jcms/upload/docs/application/pdf/2011-10/cp110112en.pdf. See also, International Law Offic, "Patentability of human embryonic stem cell-related inventions" (November 12 2012), at: http://www.internationallawoffice.com/newsletters/detail.aspx?g=12a987d8-1411-48d5-b0a6-5d9106875665. [Back]

2 Examples of only some of the most recent articles re "scientific fraud": "Italian cardiologists arrested over experiments" (November 9, 2012), at: http://www.myfoxny.com/story/20051278/italian-cardiologists-arrested-over-experiments#.UJ34gCpGzV0.email; Emily Stehr, "European Society of Human Genetics Reprimands Myriad Genetics" (November 7, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, at: http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=6495; "GM scientist's removal demanded over 'fraud'" (November 3, 2012), GM Watch, at: http://gmwatch.org/latest-listing/51-2012/14393-gm-scientists-removal-demanded-over-qfraudq; "Scientific fraud is rife: it's time to stand up for good science" (November 2, 2012), The Guardian (UK), at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2012/nov/02/scientific-fraud-good-science; Paul Diehl, "Has Biomedical Research Become Less Reliable? Irreproducibility and Misconduct in Life Science Research" (October 31, 2012), at: http://biotech.about.com/od/investinginbiotech/a/Has-Biomedical-Research-Become-Less-Reliable.htm; Paul J. Weber, "7 advisers resign at embattled Texas cancer agency" (October 18, 2012), San Francisco Chronicle, at: http://www.sfgate.com/default/article/7-advisers-resign-at-embattled-Texas-cancer-agency-3944211.php; Zoë Corbyn, "Misconduct is the main cause of life-sciences retractions Opaque announcements in journals can hide fraud, study finds", Nature Volume 490, Page 21, Date published: (04 October 2012); doi:10.1038/490021a, http://www.nature.com/news/misconduct-is-the-main-cause-of-life-sciences-retractions-1.11507; Zaria, "Warning: Genetically Modified Humans", Scientific American, October 4, 2012, http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2012/10/04/warning-genetically-modified-humans/; Editorial, "Through the gaps; A 20-year campaign of scientific fraud says as much about the research community as it does about the perpetrator. The system that allowed such deception to continue must be reformed", Nature 489, 335, September 20, 2012; doi:10.1038/489335a; http://www.nature.com/news/through-the-gaps-1.11427; Josh Fischman, "Fake Peer Reviews, the Latest Form of Scientific Fraud, Fool Journals", The Chronicle of Higher Education (subscription required), September 30, 2012; http://chronicle.com/article/Fake-Peer-Reviews-the-Latest/134784/?cid=at&utm_source=at&utm_medium=en; Carl Zimmer, "Misconduct Widespread in Retracted Science Papers, Study Finds", New York Times (Science), October 2, 2012; http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/02/science/study-finds-fraud-is-widespread-in-retracted-scientific-papers.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&_r=0; Ben Goldacre, "The drugs don't work: a modern medical scandal", The Guardian (UK), September 21, 2012; http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2012/sep/21/drugs-industry-scandal-ben-goldacre; Editorial, "Through the gaps; A 20-year campaign of scientific fraud" (September 20, 2012), Nature 489, 335, at: http://www.nature.com/news/through-the-gaps-1.11427; Chris Chambers and Petroc Sumner, "Replication is the only solution to scientific fraud", The Guardian (UK), September 14, 2012; http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/sep/14/solution-scientific-fraud-replication; "Medical Research Fraud: Professors Go Unpunished in Glaxo $3 Billion Guilty Plea Over Paxil" (August 7, 2012), The Nation, at: http://www.thenation.com/blog/169262/medical-research-fraud-professors-go-unpunished-glaxo-3-billion-guilty-plea-over-paxil#; Carl Elliott, "Should Journals Publish Industry-Funded Bioethics Articles?" (July 6, 2005), Center for Genetics and Society (see excellent references at end), at: http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=1681; Michael Cook, "Startling admissions in IVF journal" ("Some IVF patients are being offered risky, unsafe techniques which have not been developed with clinical trial and which offer dubious benefits, according to an extraordinary article in the journal Reproductive BioMedicine Online (RBO)") (August 4, 2012), BioEdge.org (Australia), at: http://www.bioedge.org/index.php/bioethics/bioethics_article/10180#comments; "Penn Professor Says He Has Identified Another Case of Research Fraud" (July 13, 2012), Chronicle of Higher Education, at: http://chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/professor-at-penn-says-he-has-identified-another-case-of-research-fraud/45585; "2 UC Davis surgeons banned from human research" (July 23, 2012), The Managed Care Reform Council (MCRC), at: http://themcrc.info/a/index.php/experiment/34-brain/51-experiment.html; "Doctors doctoring the research: fraud and error" (June 17, 2012), DoctorSkeptic, at: http://doctorskeptic.blogspot.com/2012/06/doctors-doctoring-research-fraud-and.html. [Back]

3 For those unfamiliar with or who dismiss the related "isms" of transhumanism, futurism, postnaturalism, technoprogressivism, etc., and their direct involvement with current research in stem cells, genetic engineering, synthetic biology, nanotechnology as means to achieve their goals, see the following for basics (the full number of such websites runs into the thousands): Dianne N. Irving, "Foundations of Transhumanism and Futurism; Short List of Website URLs" (Sept. 28, 2012), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_203transhumanism.html. The URLs include: Russian Transhumanism, http://evolution.2045.com/; Nick Bostrom (Oxford University, "posthumanism"), at: http://www.nickbostrom.com/ethics/values.html and at http://www.posthumanism.com/; Ray Kurzweil (American, The Singularity), at: http://www.kurzweilai.net/; The Singularity "University" in Silicon Valley, California, co-founded by NASA and Google [http://singularityu.org/], who are gurus for the Singularity Institute (for Artificial Intelligence) [http://singinst.org/; H+ Magazine, at: http://hplusmagazine.com; Humanityplus.org, at: http://humanityplus.org/; Extropy Institute, at: http://www.extropy.org/; IEET (Institute for ETHICS and Emerging Technologies), at: http://www.ieet.org/; Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News: http://www.genengnews.com/; "Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology, and Cognitive Science" sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Commerce [http://wtec.org/ConvergingTechnologies/Report/NBIC_report.pdf]; European version in 2004 conference in Brussels, "Converging Technologies for a Diverse Europe", sponsored by Converging Technologies Bar Association [http://www.convergingtechnologies.org/default2.asp]. See also Dianne N. Irving: "GNOSTICISM, the Heretical Gnostic Writings, and 'Judas'" (April 9, 2006), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_121gnosticism1.html; "Historic roots of human genetic engineering: REASON, Duke, and parahuman reproduction - 1972" (July 11, 2004), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_34winstonduke.html; Re New Book: "Sacred Economics" (October 8, 2012), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_204sacredeconomics.html; http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_202humanityisnot.html Irving Response to "Humanity Isn't, It Becomes". See also: "A Christian reflection on the "New Age", Pontifical Councils for Culture and Interreligious Dialogue, L'Osservatore Romano Aug. 13-20, 2003, at: http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/interelg/documents/rc_pc_interelg_doc_20030203_new-age_en.html#3 [Back]

4 For an extensive documentation of this "history" of the deconstruction of the accurate science involving the early human embryo, see my doctoral dissertation, Irving: Philosophical and Scientific Analysis of the Nature of the Early Human Embryo (Georgetown University, 1991); a mini-summary of the dissertation is Irving, "Scientific and philosophical expertise: An evaluation of the arguments on 'personhood'", Linacre Quarterly February 1993, 60:1:18-46, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_04person1.html. Note that the issue in both involves human sexual reproduction only, although references to human asexual reproduction are included in footnotes. The issue being addressed concerns whether it is ethical to use surplus IVF-produced human embryos (i.e., human embryos reproduced by means of fertilization) in destructive experimental research. See also: Irving, "Human Embryology and Church Teachings" (September 15, 2008), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/em/em_132embryologychurch1.html; also published in The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., Supplement 2009, (Detroit: Gayle), pp. 287-312, as "Embryology, Human"; see http://www.gale.cengage.com/NCE/; also at: http://www.personhood.ca/pdfs/embryology_human.pdf. [Back]

5 See, e.g.: Renee Reijo Pera, Director, Center for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research and Education, Stanford University, "Reprogramming and programming in the human embryo and beyond" (April 14, 2012), Center for Biomolecular Science & Engineering, Baskin Engineering, U.C. Santa Cruz, at: http://www.cbse.ucsc.edu/events/event/2115; "Clones and three parent babies: crossing an ethical line" (November 10, 2012), Vatican Radio, at: http://en.radiovaticana.va/Articolo.asp?c=636997; "Clones and Three-Parent Babies: the Ethics of Mitochondrial Replacement; A briefing paper and guidance on the consultation questions" (November 6, 2012), Anscombe Bioethics Centre (http://www.bioethics.org.uk/), at: http://www.bioethics.org.uk/images/user/MitochondrialReplacementBriefing.pdf; Michelle Roberts, "Concern Over 'Souped Up' Human Race" (November 8, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, at: http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=6498; "The Ethics & Theology of Synthetic Gametes" (November 3, 2012), Center for Bioethics & Human Dignity, Live Streaming: http://cbhd.org/livestream, at: http://cbhd2012consultation.eventbrite.com/#; "CIDAR: Where Biology Meets Engineering" (November 2, 2012), Boston University, Electrical & Computer Engineering, CIDAR (Crossdisciplinary Integration of Design Automation Research), at: http://www.bu.edu/ece/2012/11/02/cidar/; Malcolm Ritter, "Oregon scientists make embryos with 2 women, 1 man" (October 24, 20112), MyFoxNY.com, at: http://www.myfoxny.com/story/19903838/oregon-scientists-make-embryos-with-2-women-1-man#.UIiC_z7o6ng; Pete Shanks, "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Germline Engineering" (October 16, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, BioPolitical Times, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6441; Zaria Gorvett, "Warning: Genetically Modified Humans" (October 4, 2012), Scientific American, at: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2012/10/04/warning-genetically-modified-humans/; Marcy Darnovsky, "Proposed New Gene Manipulation Technique in IVF: Is it Safe? Needed? A Precedent to Designer Babies? (October 2nd, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, BioPolitical Times, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6423; Richard Alleyne, "Genetically engineering 'ethical' babies is a moral obligation, says Oxford professor (Savulescu)" (August 17, 2012), The Telegraph (UK), at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/9480372/Genetically-engineering-ethical-babies-is-a-moral-obligation-says-Oxford-professor.html; "Dangerous experiment in fetal engineering to prevent intersex, tomboys and lesbians" (August 3, 2012), ScienceBlog.com, at: http://scienceblog.com/55910/dangerous-experiment-in-fetal-engineering-to-prevent-intersex-tomboys-and-lesbians/; Mercola, "Dozens of Genetically Modified Babies Already Born - How Will They Alter Human Species?" (July 17, 2012), Mercola.com, at: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/07/17/first-genetically-modified-babies-born.aspx; Celeste McGovern, "British Ethicists Approve '3-Parent Babies' to Prevent Rare Disease Technology opens the door to new human genetic engineering" (July 9, 2012), National Catholic Register, at: http://www.ncregister.com/daily-news/british-ethicists-approve-3-parent-babies-to-prevent-rare-disease/; "International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh-North Carolina, USA", OMCS Group, at: http://www.omicsgroup.com/conferences/genetic-engineering-genetically-modified-organisms-2013/; Dianne N. Irving, -- On iPS Research: "The Moral Frontiers of Stem Cell Research" (December 6, 2010), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_179moralfrontiers.html; Dianne N. Irving, "Comments: 'Adult stem cells said to 'forget' retooling; Embryonic alternative [iPS stem cell research] suffers setback'" (July 21, 2010, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_69ipsstemcell.html; Dianne N. Irving, "Scientific References, Human Genetic Engineering (Including Cloning): Artificial Human Embryos, Oocytes, Sperms, Chromosomes and Genes" (May 25, 2004), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_25scientificrefer1.html; Martine Rothblatt, Unzipped Genes (America In Transition (June 9, 1997), Amazon.com, at: http://www.amazon.com/Unzipped-America-Transition-Martine-Rothblatt/dp/1566395542; Carolyn Abrahams, "Unnatural Selection: Is Evolving Reproductive Technology Ushering in a New Age of Eugenics?" (Jan. 7, 2012) (The Globe and Mail), at The Center for Genetics and Society, at: http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=6022. [Back]

6 See, e.g., Dianne N. Irving, "Any Human Cell - iPS, Direct Programmed, Embryonic, Fetal or Adult - Can Be Genetically Engineered to asexually Reproduce New Human Embryos for Purposes of Reproduction ('Infertility')" (November 2011), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_194cellasexuallyreproduce1.html; Irving, "Let's Be Clear About the Science and Ethics of iPS Cell Research and Its Reproductive Possibilities" (October 23, 2012), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_205ipscellresearch1.html; Irving, "Ethical and Scientific Concerns About Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research -- Yamanaka and Thomson" (June 1, 2008), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_127concerns.html; Wesley J. Smith, "Hyping Embryonic Stem Cells Like It's 2004" (September 28, 2012), at: http://www.nationalreview.com/human-exceptionalism/328843/hyping-embryonic-stem-cells-its-2004; Jared Yee, "European crisis boosts illegal trade in body parts" (June 9, 2012), BioEdge (Australia), at: http://www.bioedge.org/index.php/bioethics/bioethics_article/10107#comments; "Human Cloning and International Governance: Draft Report of IBC" (June 2, 2011), UNESCO, International Bioethics Committee (IBC), Eighteenth Session of the International Bioethics Committee, (includes concerns about international illegal trafficking), at: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SHS/pdf/Human-Cloning_IBC18_2011.pdf. [Back]

7 Examples of some of the most recent articles on synthetic biology, often referred to as "genetic engineering on steroids" (some "synthetic biology" articles overlap with "transhumanism/futurism" articles): Daniel Sharp, "Synthetic Eugenics and Scientific Silence" (June 21, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, BioPoliticalTimes.org, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6269; Zofeen Maqsood, "Answer to world's future problems lies in synthetic biology: Dr Venter" (November 18, 2012), Hindustan Times (India), at: http://www.hindustantimes.com/News-Feed/Chunk-HT-UI-HTLeadershipSummit2012-TopStories/Answer-to-world-s-future-problems-lies-in-synthetic-biology-Dr-Venter/Article1-960774.aspx; George M. Church and Ed Regis, Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves (New York: Basic Books, 2012), at: http://www.amazon.com/Regenesis-Synthetic-Biology-Reinvent-Ourselves/dp/0465021751; Ray Kurzweil, How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed (New York: The Penguin Group, 2012), at: http://www.amazon.com/How-Create-Mind-Thought-Revealed/dp/0670025291/ref=pd_bxgy_b_img_y/178-1896690-7439853#_; Marcelo Gleiser, "Synthetic biology and genetics: key components of Kurzweil's "Singularity" (November 16, 2012), George Mason University's Genetics Literacy Project, at: http://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2012/11/16/synthetic-biology-and-genetics-important-components-of-kurzweils-singularity/; Marcelo Gleiser, "Embracing Your Inner Robot: A Singular Vision Of The Future" (November 14, 2012), University of New Orleans, 89.9 WWNO Cosmos and Culture, at: http://www.wwno.org/post/embracing-your-inner-robot-singular-vision-future; Joseph P. Farrell, "Eggs from stem cells: Some positive and negative aspects of the transhumanist future" (November 14, 2012), at: http://gizadeathstar.com/2012/11/eggs-from-stem-cells-some-positive-and-negative-aspects-of-the-transhumanist-future/; Paul Basken, "Undergraduate Competition Illuminates Promises and Perils of Synthetic Biology" (November 11, 2012), The Chronicle of Higher Education, at: http://chronicle.com/article/Undergraduate-Competition/135692/; Alan Boyle, "An interview with George Church on his book, Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology with Reinvent Nature and Ourselves" (October 2, 2012), CosmicLog, at: http://cosmiclog.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/10/02/14187258-how-synthetic-biology-will-change-us?lite; Leila Sattary, "UK Chancellor singles out science to drive economic growth" (November 13, 2012), Chemistry World (UK), at: http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2012/11/chancellor-george-osborne-royal-society-science-speech; Michelle Roberts, "Concern Over 'Souped Up' Human Race" (November 8, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, at: http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=6498; "SETI Institute Senior Scientist Margaret Race to Give Synthetic Biology Lecture on November 8th" (November 6, 2012), Advanced Studies Laboratories, at: http://asl.ucsc.edu/events/margaret-race-synthetic-biology-lecture-november-6th; "Deputy Premier congratulates synthetic biology students" (November 1, 2012), Macquarie University (Australia), at: http://www.mq.edu.au/newsroom/2012/11/01/deputy-premier-congratulates-syntetic-biology-students/; Royal Society of Chemistry, "2012: Synthetic Biology: Challenges and Opportunities for the UK" (November 7, 2012), at: http://rscdebatelivelink.eventbrite.co.uk/?ebtv=C; Steven Kotler, "Hacking the President's DNA: When Synthetic Biology Meets National Security" (October 25, 2012), Forbes.com, at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenkotler/2012/10/25/hacking-the-presidents-dna-when-synthetic-biology-meets-national-security/; "[Synthetic Biology] Promise of stem cell research focus of Arizona Science Center talk" (October 16, 2012), Arizona State University, at: https://asunews.asu.edu/20121016_haynesstemcells; "ASU receives grant to study transhumanism, religion, innovation" (October 31, 2012, Arizona State University, at: https://asunews.asu.edu/20121029_csrctranshumangrant; "Blacksburg-based Intrexon to acquire 48 percent interest in Massachusetts biotech company" (October 31, 2012), Virginia Business, at: http://www.virginiabusiness.com/index.php/news/article/blacksburg-based-intrexon-to-acquire-48-percent-interest-in-massachusetts-b/321668/; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories, Cold Spring Harbor Asia Conferences, "Synthetic Biology Conference November 26-30" (October 30, 2012), at: http://www.csh-asia.org/Abstract%20Status/a-synthesi_absstat.html; Ben Rooney, "Israeli Start-up Wants to Democratize Creation" (October 29, 2012), Wall Street Journal, at: http://blogs.wsj.com/tech-europe/2012/10/29/israeli-start-up-wants-to-democratize-creation/; Jeff Conant, "Weird Science: The Promise and Peril of Synthetic Biology" (Autumn 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, at: http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=6382; Daniel Sharp, "International Coalition Unveils Principles for the Oversight of Synthetic Biology" (March 22, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, BioPolitical Times, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6127; Eric Hoffman, "Global coalition calls for oversight of synthetic biology" (March 13, 2012), at: http://www.foe.org/news/blog/2012-03-global-coalition-calls-oversight-synthetic-biology; "Civil Society Letter to President's Commission on Synthetic Biology" (December 16, 2010), Signed by 58 organizations from 22 countries, at: http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=5517; Report of the President's Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (December 16, 2010), http://www.bioethics.gov/cms/node/83; full report at: http://www.bioethics.gov/cms/sites/default/files/news/PCSBI-Synthetic-Biology-Report-12.16.10.pdf; "COP 10 Outcomes." United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (November 2, 2010), at: http://www.cbd.int/nagoya/outcomes/; Allison A. Snow, "Transcript: Benefits and Risks of Synthetic Biology" (July 8, 2010), The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, at: http://www.bioethics.gov/transcripts/syntheticbiology/070810/benefits-and-risks-of-synthetic-biology.html; "Obama's letter to Dr. Amy Gutmann on synthetic biology advance" (May 20, 2010), at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/31697906/Obama-s-letter-to-Dr-Amy-Gutmann-on-synthetic-biology-advance; ETC Group, Global Coalition Sounds the Alarm on Synthetic Biology, Demands Oversight and Societal Debate (May 19, 2006), Signed by 38 organizations working in 60 countries, at: http://www.etcgroup.org/upload/publication/8/01/nr_synthetic_bio_19th_may_2006.pdf; "The Wingspread Consensus Statement on the Precautionary Principle" (January 26, 1998), Science & Environmental Health Network, at: http://www.sehn.org/wing.html ; Daniel Sharp, "Synthetic Eugenics and Scientific Silence" (June 21, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, BioPoliticalTimes.org, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6269; "Congressional Hearing on the Ethics of Synthetic Biology" (June 7, 2912), Synthetic Bestiary (Synthetic Biology, Genetic Engineering and The Future), at: http://www.synthetic-bestiary.com/289/congressional-hearing-on-the-ethics-of-synthetic-biology/; Daniel Sharp, "Is International Governance on the Horizon for Synthetic Biology?" (May 31, 2012), Genetics and Society, BioPoliticalTimes.org, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6242; Daniel Sharp, "Artificial DNA Presents Real Dangers" (May 2, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, BioPoliticalTimes.org, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6190; "Singularity University Announces Inaugural Synthetic Biology Accelerator Program" (May 17, 2012), The Wall Street Journal, at: http://www.marketwatch.com/story/singularity-university-announces-inaugural-synthetic-biology-accelerator-program-2012-05-17; "Singularity University Announces New Corporate Partnership with Genentech to Explore The Future of Exponentially Advancing Technologies" (May 15, 2012), Singularity University News, at: http://singularityu.org/singularity-university-announces-new-corporate-partnership-with-genentech-to-explore-the-future-of-exponentially-advancing-technologies/. [Back]

8 Nanotechnology research covers multiple fields. It is, among other things, a "mini" way to do genetic engineering and synthetic biology, using atoms and very small molecules as "information" instead of larger genes and chromosomes. See recent representative articles: Michael Price, "Materials Researchers Find Opportunity in Biomedicine" (e.g., culture media for human stem cells) (November 16, 2012), Science, at: http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_magazine/previous_issues/articles/2012_11_16/caredit.a1200128; "'Bio-bots' Making Tracks In Synthetic Biology" (November 15, 2012), University of Illinois, RedOrbit.com, at: http://www.redorbit.com/news/technology/1112733033/bio-bots-making-tracks-synthetic-biology-111512/; Rebecca Boyle, "7 Amazing Ways Nanotechnology Is Changing The World: Tiny nanoparticles are a huge part of our lives, for better or for worse" (November 14, 2012), Popular Science, at: http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2012-11/7-amazing-ways-nanotechnology-changing-world; Md Rasooldeen, "KACST conducted 193 research projects on nanotechnology in four years" (November 12, 2012), Arab News, at: http://www.arabnews.com/kacst-conducted-193-research-projects-nanotechnology-four-years; "Workshop on nanotechnology in environmental remediation" (November 6, 2012), Nanowerk.com, at: http://www.nanowerk.com/news2/newsid=27258.php; "European boost for DNA nanotechnology" (November 6, 20120, Nanowerk.com, at: http://www.nanowerk.com/news2/newsid=27232.php; Jathan Sadowski, "The Much-Needed and Sane Congressional Office That Gingrich Killed Off and We Need Back" (October 26, 2012), The Atlantic, at: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/10/the-much-needed-and-sane-congressional-office-that-gingrich-killed-off-and-we-need-back/264160/; "NASA and nanotechnology" (October 23, 2012), Nanowerk.com, at: http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=27065.php; William Kraemer, "Mapping the Mind to Merge with Machines: Experimental Research Approaches to Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs)" (October 28, 2012), Lifeboat Foundation, Safeguarding Humanity, at: http://lifeboat.com/blog/2012/10/mapping-the-mind-to-merge-with-machines; "Med tech at the interface of nano and medical implants" (using stem cells) (October 22, 2012), Silicon Republic, at: http://www.siliconrepublic.com/innovation/item/29820-medtech/; R. Kayne, "What are the Possible Dangers of Nanotechnology?" (including to the human fetus) (October 17, 2012), Wise Geek, at: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-possible-dangers-of-nanotechnology.htm; Riajul Hossain, "Emergence of Nanobiotechnology" (April 10, 2012), The Daily Star, at: http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=229636; "Safety issues plague designer gene, nano workers" (April 1, 2012), at: http://richardbrenneman.wordpress.com/2012/04/01/safety-issues-plague-designer-gene-nano-workers/. [Back]

9 Again, the following represent only the most recent articles on "surrogacy": "'Coronation Street': Tina surrogacy gossip to spread?" (November 15, 2012), IMDb TV series (UK), at: http://www.imdb.com/news/ni40739716/; Justin Corr, "Idaho is a destination for surrogacy" (November 13, 2012), KTVB.com (Idaho), at: http://www.ktvb.com/news/health/Surrogacy-on-the-rise-in-Idaho-179202521.html; Michael Cook, "Surrogate mother of 13 calls it a day" (November 11, 2012), BioEdge.org (Australia), at: http://www.bioedge.org/index.php/bioethics/bioethics_article/10313; "New York Times Piece Reflects on Surrogacy as a Source of Income" (November 6, 2012), National Partnership for Women and Families, at: http://www.nationalpartnership.org/site/News2?abbr=daily2_&page=NewsArticle&id=36588; Susan Straight, "Making Babies, Just to Make Ends Meet" (November 3, 2012), The New York Times, at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/04/opinion/sunday/making-babies-just-to-make-ends-meet.html?pagewanted=all; Andrew Shaw, "Rainbow Families: Surrogacy" (November 6, 2012), Gay News Network, at: http://gaynewsnetwork.com.au/feature/ft-national/9414-rainbow-families-surrogacy.html; Yang Jinghao, "Quest for fatherhood" (November 5, 2012), Global Times (China), at: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/742432.shtml; "Surrogacy Options for Gay Couples: In Search of a Womb of One's Own" (as of November 4, 2012), It's Conceivable Now; The Path to Parenting Isn't Always Straight, at: http://itsconceivablenow.com/surrogacy/; Rebecca DiLeonardo, "New Jersey Supreme Court upholds surrogacy law" (October 25, 2012), The Jurist, at: http://jurist.org/paperchase/2012/10/nj-supreme-court-upholds-surrogacy-law.php; "Recruiting set to start for an international gay surrogacy parenting research" (October 23, 2012), Men Having Babies, at: http://www.menhavingbabies.org/news/index_files/surrogacy-research-gay-dads.html; "Could the human clones of 'Cloud Atlas' be in our future?" (October 26, 2012), MSNBC News, at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/49575815/ns/technology_and_science-science/; "Reproductive tourism: Paying women in poor countries to bear our babies is rife with ethical problems" (October 23, 2012), HealthCanal.com, at: http://www.healthcanal.com/pregnancy-childbirth/33222-Reproductive-tourism-Paying-women-poor-countries-bear-our-babies-rife-with-ethical-problems.html; Jwala Thapa, "Who Speaks for the Child in a Surrogacy" (October 17, 2012), Journal of Indian law and Society, at: http://jilsblognujs.wordpress.com/2012/10/17/who-speaks-for-the-child-in-a-surrogacy/; Huang Yuli, "Two surrogacy services raided" (October 20, 2012), China Daily, at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2012-10/20/content_15833417.htm; "California Enacts Landmark Legislation Giving Same Sex Parents Via Surrogacy Equal Parenting Rights" (October 20, 2012), The Sacramental Bee, at: http://www.sacbee.com/2012/10/17/4918756/california-enacts-landmark-legislation.html; "Gay Couples Can Now Produce Their Own Eggs For Surrogacy" (October 9, 2012), The Gay Hot Spot, at: http://www.thegayhotspot.com/news/abroad/gay-couples-can-now-produce-their-own-egg-for-surrogacy/; Wesley J. Smith, "Using IVF Surrogacy to Manufacture American Citizens" (October 2, 2012), at: http://www.nationalreview.com/human-exceptionalism/329047/using-ivf-surrogacy-manufacture-american-citizens; Samuel Wade, "Chinese Couples Seek American Surrogate Mothers" (September 25, 2012), China Digital Times, at: http://chinadigitaltimes.net/2012/09/chinese-couples-seek-american-surrogate-mothers/; "New Fund to Assist Gay Men Become Parents is Launched by Men Having Babies, an Organization that Already Helped Hundreds Become Surrogacy Dads" (September 26, 2012), PRWeb.com, at: http://www.prweb.com/releases/gay-men-having-babies/surrogacy-financial-fund/prweb9943541.htm; "Senators OK Fertility [Surrogacy] Help for Wounded Vets" (as of Sept. 24, 2012), (from ArmyTimes.com), BuildingFamiliesinc.com, at: http://www.buildingfamiliesinc.com/blog-posts/2012-blog-posts/senators-ok-fertility-surrogacy-help-for-wounded-vets; Rohini Nair, "The New Normal - TV embraces the message" (September 17, 2012), DeccanChronicle.com, at: http://www.deccanchronicle.com/channels/showbiz/tv-guide/tv-embraces-message-330; "Many egg-donor recruiters ignore ethical standards-study" (August 10, 2012), Reuters.com, at: http://in.reuters.com/article/2012/08/10/health-eggdonation-idINL4E8JA00T20120810; "International Surrogacy and Human Rights: 17-20 March 2013, Sydney, Australia" (as of August 24, 2012), World Congress on Family Law and Children's Rights6th World Congress on Family Law and Children's Rights, at: http://www.wcflcr2013.com/abstract/32.asp; Marc Kalan,"Gay Lesbian and Bisexual Family Building" (August 13, 2012), The Center for Fertility and Gynecology, at: http://www.center4fertility.com/blog/tags/surrogacy; "Leading American Surrogacy Psychologist Dr. Kim Bergman of Growing Generations to Present to Members of New South Wales Parliament; Presentation To Educate Members About Ethical Issues Related to Family Building Through Surrogacy in the United States" (September 7, 2012), PRNewswire.com, at: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/leading-american-surrogacy-psychologist-dr-kim-bergman-of-growing-generations-to-present-to-members-of-new-south-wales-parliament-168937826.htm; "The Advocate magazine profiles Circle Surrogacy couple; NBC's newest fall sitcom, The CircleSurrogacy.com New Normal, marks a television milestone for LGBT families" (as of September 18, 2012), at: http://www.circlesurrogacy.com/press/30-the-advocate-magazine-profiles-circle-surrogacy-couple; Karl Ritter, "An alternative to surrogacy? Swedish doctors transplant uterus" (September 18, 2012), UticaOD.com, at: http://www.uticaod.com/latestnews/x346972398/An-alternative-to-surrogacy-Swedish-doctors-transplant-uterus; "The New Normal, that premiers September 11 on NBC: http://www.nbc.com/the-new-normal/" ("These days, families come in all forms - single dads, double moms, sperm donors, egg donors, one-night-stand donors... It's 2012 and anything goes."), at: http://www.nbc.com/the-new-normal/about/; Tony Moore, "Brisbane judge makes world-first conception ruling" ("A Brisbane judge has made a world-first ruling on conception that will have a significant impact on Queensland parents who have children through surrogacy. The decision, made by Brisbane Children's Court judge Leanne Clare on Wednesday, ruled conception only occurred when a fertilised egg was implanted in a woman's womb - that is, the moment of pregnancy - rather than at the the moment the egg was fertilised." (August 10, 2012), BrisbaneTimes.com (Australia), at: http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/brisbane-judge-makes-worldfirst-conception-ruling-20120809-23wqa.html; "Circle Surrogacy to Host Informational Group Meeting on Surrogacy for Residents of France, September 16, 2012" (August 9, 2012), Global Financial Network, Equities.com, at: http://www.equities.com/news/news-headline-story?dt=2012-08-09&val=362789&d=1&cat=headline; Susan K. Livio, "Christie vetoes bill that would have eased tough rules for gestational surrogates" (August 8, 2012), at: http://www.nj.com/politics/index.ssf/2012/08/christie_vetoes_bill_that_woul.html; Stark, Barbara J., "Transnational Surrogacy and International Human Rights" (July 26, 2012), ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2012. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2118077, Social Science Research Network, at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2118077; Gina Barton, "Wisconsin ruling prevents most insurers from denying benefits to surrogates; Firms can't exclude coverage based on circumstances of pregnancy" (August 4, 2012), Milwaukee Wisconsin Journal Sentinel, at: http://www.jsonline.com/features/health/wisconsin-ruling-prevents-most-insurers-from-denying-benefits-to-surrogates-jn63tt4-164982446.html; Priyanka Vora, "Quick money lures young women to donate eggs to fertility clinics" (July 23, 2012), HindustanTimes.com, at: http://www.hindustantimes.com/India-news/Mumbai/Quick-money-lures-young-women-to-donate-eggs-to-fertility-clinics/Article1-893900.aspx; Rashmi Saksena, "The big surrogacy game" (July 26, 2012), MilleniumPost.com, at: http://millenniumpost.in/NewsContent.aspx?NID=5813; "Sham IVF clinics get free run for want of legal binds" (July 14, 2012), DailyPioneer.com, at: http://dailypioneer.com/nation/80604-sham-ivf-clinics-get-free-run-for-want-of-legal-binds.html; Kyra Hall, "Infertile and homosexual couples turn to surrogate parenting to have children" (June 29, 2012), The Guardian Express (UK), at: http://guardianlv.com/2012/06/infertile-and-homosexual-couples-turn-to-surrogate-parenting/; "Surrogacy lawyer Theresa Erickson pleads guilty" (Feb. 25, 2012), San Francisco Chronicle, at: http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Surrogacy-lawyer-Theresa-Erickson-pleads-guilty-3360450.php. [Back]

10 Interestingly, a recent UNESCO report highlights the use of human asexual reproductive techniques as an international concern, including their role in illegal human trafficking, addressing 6 (among many) such techniques. See: "Human Cloning and International Governance: Draft Report of IBC" (June 2, 2011), UNESCO, International Bioethics Committee (IBC), Eighteenth Session of the International Bioethics Committee, at: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SHS/pdf/Human-Cloning_IBC18_2011.pdf. In response to this report, providing very extensive scientific documentation of 3 of these human asexual reproductive techniques, see Irving, "Any Human Cell - iPS, Direct Programmed, Embryonic, Fetal or Adult - Can Be Genetically Engineered to asexually Reproduce New Human Embryos for Purposes of Reproduction ('Infertility')" (November 2011), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_194cellasexuallyreproduce1.html. [Back]

11 Again, the current literature on "transhumanism", "futurism", "posthumanism", "technoprogressivism", etc. is prolific. The following are examples taken from just the last few months: Nick Bostrom, "Intelligent will: Motivation and instrumental rationality in advanced artificial agents" (forthcoming in Minds and Machines, 2012), Future of Humanity Institute, Oxford University, at: http://www.nickbostrom.com/superintelligentwill.pdf; Marcelo Gleiser, "Synthetic biology and genetics: key components of Kurzweil's 'Singularity'" (November 16, 2012), George Mason University, Genetics Literacy Project (Where Science Trumps Ideology), at: http://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2012/11/16/synthetic-biology-and-genetics-important-components-of-kurzweils-singularity/; Transhumanpraxis, "Transhumanism, Zero State, & THE NEW GNOSTICISM" (September 27, 2012), at: http://transhumanpraxis.wordpress.com/2012/09/27/transhumanism-zero-state-the-new-gnosticism/; "We're Offering Certificate Programs in Transhumanism" (November 18, 2012), Transhumanity.net, Where strange brilliant ideas for the future intermingle and breed..., at: http://transhumanity.net/news/entry/were-offering-certificate-programs-in-transhumanism; "Eugenics in California: A Legacy of the Past?" (September 4, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, BioPolitical Times, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6383; "Designer Children: Libertarian Transhumanism, Cyborg, Designer-Babies, Futurism, Futurist, Immortality, Longevity, Nanotechnology, Post-Human, Singularity, Transhuman, Pierre Teilhard De Chardin" (November 2, 2012), at: http://www.designerchildren.com/libertarian-transhumanism-wiki-article-video/ Wesley J. Smith, "The Trouble With Transhumanism" (August 9, 2012), Human Exceptionalism, National Review Online, at: http://www.nationalreview.com/human-exceptionalism/323273/trouble-transhumanism; "ASU receives grant to study transhumanism, religion, innovation" (October 31, 2012), Arizona State University, at: https://asunews.asu.edu/20121029_csrctranshumangrant; Carol Clark, "Zombie fad seen as entry point to serious bioethics discussions", (October 31, 2012), World Science.net, at: http://www.world-science.net/othernews/121031_zombie.htm; "Michio Kaku Exposed promoting Merging with Computers Transhumanist Agenda" (October 28, 2012), YouTube.com, at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7mn-KP-7aCE; Katina Michael, "People plus: is transhumanism the next stage in our evolution?" (October 29, 2012), TheConversation.edu.au, at: http://theconversation.edu.au/people-plus-is-transhumanism-the-next-stage-in-our-evolution-9771; Jeremy Hsu, "Could the human clones of 'Cloud Atlas' be in our future?" (October 26, 2012), MSNBC News, at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/49575815/ns/technology_and_science-science/; "Humanity+ Conference in San Francisco" (October 12, 2012), Mormon Transhumanist Association, Transfigurism.org, at: http://news.transfigurism.org/2012/10/humanity-conference-insanfrancisco.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+transfigurism+(Mormon+Transhumanist+Association+Feeds); Bruce Sterling, "The Center for Postnatural History" (October 8, 2012), Wired.com, at: http://www.wired.com/beyond_the_beyond/2012/10/the-center-for-postnatural-history/; "Singularity Summit 2012 (Oct. 13-14, San Francisco)", (October 5, 2012), io9 Futurism, at: http://io9.com/5948892/vernor-vinge-and-temple-grandin-to-speak-at-singularity-summit-2012; Leo Kent, "Body Hacking: Arrival of the grinders" (October 8, 2012), HumansInvent.com, at: http://www.humansinvent.com/?_escaped_fragment_=/9162/body-hacking-arrival-of-the-grinders/; "Kurzweil: Brains will extend to the cloud" (October 4, 2012), ComputerWorld.com, at: http://computerworld.co.nz/news.nsf/technology/kurzweil-brains-will-extend-to-the-cloud; "Transhumanism … The Shape of Things to Come?" (September 14, 2012), at: http://storiesbywilliams.com/2012/09/14/transhumanism-the-shape-of-things-to-come/; James Redford, "The Transhumanist God [the Omega Point] Proven to Exist Per Known Laws of Physics" (September 27, 2012), Kurzweil (Accelerating Intelligence), at: http://www.kurzweilai.net/forums/topic/the-transhumanist-god-proven-to-exist-per-known-laws-of-physics; Giuilio Prisco, "Italy elects first transhumanist MP" (August 26, 2012), Kurzweil (Accelerating Intelligence), at: http://www.kurzweilai.net/italy-elects-first-transhumanist-mp; Olivia Solon, "Smart drugs to 'moral enhancement': a chemical approach to transhumanism" (September 6, 2012), Wired.co.uk, Transhuman Week (http://www.wired.co.uk/topics/transhuman-week), at: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-09/06/chemical-enhancement; Tanya Lewis, "Engineering Life to Survive on Mars and Aid Human Colonization" (August 8, 2012), Wired.com, at: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/08/engineering-bacteria-for-mars/; Hank Pellissier, "Immortality Will Arrive via Singularity, Nanotech, or Genetic Engineering - say 800+ Transhumanists" (August 15, 2012), Institute for ETHICS and Emerging Techologies (IEET), at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/pellissier20120815; Robert Lee Hotz, "Future of Data: Encoded in DNA", (August 16, 2012), Wall Street Journal, at: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10000872396390444233104577593291643488120.html?mod=djemalertNEWS; Logan Hawkes, "FARM TREK: To boldly grow where no man has grown before" (July 6, 2012), SouthWestFarmPress.com, at: http://southwestfarmpress.com/government/farm-trek-boldly-grow-where-no-man-has-grown; Margaret Somerville, "Transhumanism: the dangers of creating Humanity 2.0; Could you become immortal by downloading your brain onto a computer? Some tech enthusiasts are working on it" (July 15, 2011), Mercatornet, at: http://www.mercatornet.com/articles/view/transhumanism_the_dangers_of_creating_humanity_2.0; Dick Pelletier, "Earth 2062: a brief look at how our Future could unfold in 50 years; Flying cars, super-smart robots, conquering death, heading for the high frontier" (June 2, 2012), Institute for ETHICS and Emerging Technologies (IEET), at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/pelletier20120602; "George Dvorksy offers Online Seminar on Transhumanism" (April 27, 2012), Institute for Ethics & Emerging Technologies (IEET), at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/pellissier20120427; Daniel H. Wilson, "Bionic Brains and Beyond" (June 1, 2012), The Wall Street Journal, at: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303640104577436601227923924.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_MIDDLE_Video_Third; "New centre aims to understand how intelligence arises from brain's circuits" (How to genetically engineer behavior) (April 23, 2012), Phys.org (UK), at: http://phys.org/wire-news/96618213/new-centre-aims-to-understand-how-intelligence-arises-from-brain.html; Petra Rattue, "Brain Mechanism For Reward Enjoyment - New Insight" (April 10, 2012), Medical News Today, at: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/243960.php. [Back]

12 (Note: Art Caplan, one of the original Founders of "bioethics" (by mandate of the U.S. Congress' 1974 National Research Act, providing for the formal "birth" of bioethics in the 1978 Belmont Report), is now on the Board of the Institute for ETHICS and Emerging Technology (IEET), a purely transhumanism/futurist organization: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/caplanbot09. Art Caplan, "Ethicist: Fixing genes using cloning technique is worth the ethical risk" (October 24, 2012), NBC News.com, at: http://vitals.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/10/24/14672441-ethicist-fixing-genes-using-cloning-technique-is-worth-the-ethical-risk; Michael Cook, "Bioethics under attack in new book" (September 15, 2012), BioEdge.org (Australia), at: http://www.bioedge.org/index.php/bioethics/bioethics_article/10237#comments; Pete Shanks, "Ethics Schmethics Says Ethicist" (July 19, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, BioPoliticalTimes, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6323; Michael Cook, "Queer bioethics holds its first conference", (September 21, 2012), BioEdge.org (Australia), at: http://www.bioedge.org/index.php/bioethics/bioethics_article/10239#comments; Pete Shanks, "Will the FDA Close Down Celltex?" (June 28, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, BioPolitical Times, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6284; Wesley J. Smith, "No, Bioethicists Can't Ride to the Rescue" (May 10, 2012), First Things, at: http://www.firstthings.com/blogs/secondhandsmoke/2012/05/10/no-bioethicists-cant-ride-to-the-rescue/; Wesley J. Smith, "Bioethicists Fraternizing With the Enemy" (May 11, 2012), First Things, at: http://www.firstthings.com/blogs/secondhandsmoke/2012/05/11/bioethicists-fraternizing-with-the-enemy/; Pete Shanks, "Unethical Bioethicists?" (February 10, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, BioPolitical Times, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6070; Carl Elliott, "Should Journals Publish Industry-Funded Bioethics Articles?" (July 6, 2005) (see excellent references at end), Center for Genetics and Society, at: http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=1681; Leigh Turner, "Bioethic$ Inc." (July 31, 2004), Center for Genetics and Society, at: http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=138.

See also articles on bioethics by Dianne N. Irving: "What is 'bioethics'?" (June 3, 2000), UFL Proceedings of the Conference 2000, in Joseph W. Koterski (ed.), Life and Learning X: Proceedings of the Tenth University Faculty For Life Conference (Washington, D.C.: University Faculty For Life, 2002), pp. 1-84, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_36whatisbioethics01.html; "The bioethics mess", Crisis Magazine, Vol. 19, No. 5, May 2001, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_37bioethicsmess.html; "Academic fraud and conceptual transfer in bioethics: Abortion, human embryo research and psychiatric research", in Joseph W. Koterski (ed.), Life And Learning IV (Washington, D.C.: University Faculty for Life, 1995), pp. 193-215, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_10fraud1.html; "The Role of Ethics in Science and Public Policy" (Sept. 8, 2005), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_103roleofethics.html; "Which ethics for the 21st century? A comparison of 'secular bioethics' and Roman Catholic medical ethics" (March 14, 1999), Linacre Quarterly (in press), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_02ethics1.html; "Which ethics for science and public policy?", Accountability in Research 1993, 3(2-3):77-99, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_42whichethics1.html. [Back]

13 For various scientific references documenting the abortifacient effects of most "contraceptives", see Dianne N. Irving: "Abortifacients and the Role of Correct Science in Counseling, the Formation of Conscience, and Moral Decision Making" (April 12, 2009), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_140correctscience1.html; "Testimony Submitted to FDA Re Change of MAP to OTC Status" (Nov. 19, 2004), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_85newdrug.html; also, "Submission to the FDA: Dec. 16 Meeting, New Drug Application 21-045, Plan B, and Preven, 'Morning-After' Pills" (December 5, 2003), submitted to Ms Karen M. Templeton-Somers, and The Joint Meeting of the Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (HFD-21), Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20857, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_19newdrug21-045.html, and at http://www.pfli.org; also, "Invited Scientific Submission on Possible Abortifacient Effects of Posnitor (a 'morning-after' pill)", submitted to Dr. William Torres, Director of the Bureau of Food and Drug, Filinvest Corporate City Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Philippines; August 28, 2001, in support of suit filed by Attorney Jo Aurea M. Imbong of the Abaypalilya Foundation, Inc., Marilina City, Philippines; Philippine government reversed policy, and banned Posnitor (Dec. 2, 2001), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_33posnitor_map.html.

See also: Bob Unruh, "Bill Gates: World needs fewer people; Joins abortionists for 'family planning' conference on eugenics" (August 19, 2012), WorldNetDaily.com, at: http://www.wnd.com/2012/08/bill-gates-world-needs-fewer-people/; John Smeaton, "Microsoft first lady partners pro-abortion leaders" (July 10, 2012), Society for the Protection of Unborn Children (SPUB), at: http://spuc-director.blogspot.com/2012/07/microsoft-first-lady-partners-pro.html; Daniel Sharp, "Synthetic Eugenics and Scientific Silence" (June 21, 2012), Center for Genetics and Society, BioPoliticalTimes.org, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=6269; Richard Conniff, "God and White Men at Yale" (May/June 2012), Yale Alumni Magazine, at: http://www.yalealumnimagazine.com/issues/2012_05/feature_eugenics.html; Ross Douthat, "Eugenics, Past and Future" (June 9, 2012), The New York Times, at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/10/opinion/sunday/douthat-eugenics-past-and-future.html; Jurriaan Maessen, "Rockefeller Anti-Fertility Vaccines Exposed" (June 9, 2012), Prison Planet, at: http://www.prisonplanet.com/rockefeller-anti-fertility-vaccines-exposed.html. [Back]

14 See Irving, "A One-Act Play: 'Crippled Consciences and the Human Embryo'" (November 17, 2010), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_178one-act-play1.html; also at: http://www.issues4life.org/pdfs/aoneactplay.pdf; also, Irving, "The impact of international bioethics on the 'sanctity of life ethic', and the ability of Catholic ObGyn's to practice according to conscience"; presented at the international conference, "The Future of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: The Fundamental Human Right to Practice and Be Trained According to Conscience"; sponsored by the International Federation of Catholic Medical Associations (FIAMC), and MaterCare International, Rome, Italy, June 18, 2001, Proceedings of the Conference, at http://frblin.club.fr/fiamc/03events/0110gyneco/gyneco1.htm; also in, Journal: Canadian Chapter, Fellowship of Catholic Scholars (Autumn 2002), pp. 7-32, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_40bioandconscience01.html. [Back]

15 An extensive collection of Irving analyses of various state, national and international bills and regulations involving the early human embryo, all of which are using false scientific "facts" of human embryology, can be found posted in The Irving Library, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/section.php?topic=ir. See, e.g., Dianne N. Irving: "Submission of Concern to the Canadian CIHR Re the 'Human Stem Cell Research Recommendations 2001'"; written as UFL Board Member on behalf of UFL; submitted to Dr. Alan Bernstein, President, Canadian Institutes of Health Research Working Group on Stem Cell Research, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (June 3, 2001), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_60canadiancihrrecomm1.html; "Submission of Concern to the British House of Lords Re the 'Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Research Purposes) Regulations 2001'"; written as UFL Board Member on behalf of UFL; submitted to Tony Rawsthorne, Select Committee, House of Lords, London (June 1, 2001), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_61ufl_greatbritain1.html; http://www.parliament.the-stationeryoffice.co.uk/pa/ld200102/ldselect/ldstem/83/8313.htm; [[[acknowledgment]]] http://www.uffl.org/irving/irvlords.htm [[[full text]]]; "Scientific Analysis of Canadian Bill C-56: Assisted Human Reproduction Act 2002", submitted to the Canadian House of Commons, and Parliament (May 17, 2002), at: http:www.lifesite.net/features/stemcellembryo/ irvingcritiquebillc56.pdf; Analysis: "Requested testimony on Canadian Bill C-13 ('Assisted Human Reproduction Act')", House of Commons (December 9, 2002), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_16canadianbill.html; Analysis: "Canadian Bill C-13: Commentators in Denial, Bill C-13" (Dec 17, 2001), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_17commentatorsindenial.html.

See also Irving analyses of various state and national human cloning bills and regulations: Dianne N. Irving, "Letter of Concern to Sen. Brownback and Congressman Weldon Re the 'Human Cloning Bill 2001'"; written as UFL Board Member on behalf of UFL; submitted to Sen. Brownback and Congr. Weldon, U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C. (May 27, 2001), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_52weldonbrownback1.html; Analysis: "Making sense of the North Dakota Prolife Bill HB 1450?" (Feb. 12, 2011), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_184minnesota.html; "American Medical Association's "Narrow Definitions", Legal "Re-definitions"... and Reproductive Cloning" (October 9, 2009), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_170ama1.html; "Ohio 'prolife' Bill to 'Ban' Human Cloning; Needs Homework" (J une 13, 2008), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_128ohio.html; "Problems With Colorado's 'Personhood' Amendment: The Phrase, 'From the Moment of Fertilization'" (May 31, 2008), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_126colorado.html; "Problems with 'from conception to natural death'" (Colorado) (August 8, 2007), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_67coloradoinitiative.html; "Analysis: Delaware House Passes Fraudulent Human Cloning 'Ban'" (January 18, 2006), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_115delawareban.html; "Analysis: Delaware Regenerative Medicine [Stem Cell] Bill SB 80" (June 25, 2005), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_96sen_venables.html; "Analysis: California's Current Cloning Law Allows Both 'Therapeutic' and 'Reproductive' Cloning; Sets Up Arbitrary Regulatory Committee" (Oct. 26, 2004), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_83californiacloninglaw.html; "Analysis of Legislative and Regulatory Chaos in the U.S.: Asexual Human Reproduction and Genetic Engineering" (Oct. 20, 2004), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_81chaosasexgen1.html; "Analysis: Stearns' Congressional Human Cloning Fairy Tale 'Ban'; New Age and Transhumanist Legislation for 'Converging Technologies'?" (Sept. 8, 2004), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_77stearncloningtale1.html; Analysis: "State of Louisiana 'Total Bans' on Human Cloning: Beard HB-803 and Lentini SB-873" (June 3, 2004); see HB-803 at: http://www.legis.state.la.us/leg_docs/04RS/CVT3/OUT/0000LHPQ.PDF; see SB-873 at: http://www.legis.state.la.us/leg_docs/04RS/CVT1/OUT/0000LLZ2.PDF. See Irving analysis at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_33analysis_louisiana.html; State of Delaware human cloning "ban": Loopholes Form Blueprints for Human Genetic Engineering (April 14, 2004), requested by Delaware RTL, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_30delawarecloningban1.html; Analysis: "South Dakota 'Abortion Bill' Trades Off One Lethal Bill For Another" (Mar. 9, 2004) at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_29sdakotaabortionban.html; "Requested submission to State of Maryland, Committee Hearings on HB-481 and SB-472 on 'Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2004'" (March 5, 2004), Committee number 410-841-3770, submitted to Maryland Catholic Conference, Annapolis, Maryland; at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_28maryland.html; Analysis: "Caution needed on South Dakota "Abortion Bill" HB-1191" (Feb. 6, 2004), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_26southdakotaabrbill.html; Analysis: "State of South Dakota human cloning 'ban'", Senate Bill SB-184 (2004): http://legis.state.sd.us/sessions/2004/bills/SB184p.htm. See Irving analysis (Feb. 2, 2004) at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_25southdakotacloning.html; Analysis: "State of Nebraska human cloning 'ban'", Senate Bill HP-602 (2004): http://www.unicam.state.ne.us/pdf/INTRO_LB602.pdf. See Irving analysis (Jan. 16, 2004) at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_22nebraskaban.html; Analysis: "Irving: Speaking Out About The Costa Rican Cloning 'Bust' At The United Nations" (Nov. 23, 2003), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_18costaricanbust.html; Analysis: "Costa Rican cloning proposal at United Nations won't ban all human cloning" (Sept. 29, 2003), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_15costarican.html; Analysis: "State of Arkansas human cloning 'ban'", As Engrossed, Senate Bill No 185 (2003), at: http://www.accessarkansas.org/lobbyist/arliab/src/public/bills/2003/html/sb185.html. See Irving analysis (July 20, 2003) at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_13arkansas1.html; "Submission to the State of Massachusetts House of Representatives Re the 'Morning-After' Pill"; submitted to Representatives Moore, Teahan, Garry and Golden (July 18, 2003); Analysis: "State of South Carolina human cloning 'ban'", House Bill No. 3819 (June 7, 2003): http://www.scstatehouse.net/cgibin/query2001.exe?first=DOC&querytext=cloning&category=Legislation&session=115&conid=383237&result_pos=0&keyval=1153819&printornot=N. See Irving analysis (June 7, 2003) at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_11southcarolina.html; Analysis: "State of Louisiana human cloning 'ban'", House Bill No. 1810 (2003): http://www.legis.state.la.us/leg_docs/03RS/CVT5/OUT/0000K8X5.PDF. See Irving analysis (May 31, 2003) at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_07louisianabill.html; Analysis: "State of Wisconsin human cloning 'ban'", Assembly Bill No. 104 (2003): http://www.legis.state.wi.us/2003/data/AB-104.pdf. See Irving analysis (May 31, 2003), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_08wisconsinban.html; Analysis: "State of Louisiana: Two cloning 'bans' would allow extensive human cloning and human genetic engineering" (May 16, 2004): See House Bill 557 (Beard, http://www.legis.state.la.us/leg_docs/04RS/CVT9/OUT/0000L1XQ.PDF), which is identical to Senate Bill 782 (Lentini, http://www.legis.state.la.us/leg_docs/04RS/CVT8/OUT/0000LD1W.PDF), and House Bill 803 (Beard, http://www.legis.state.la.us/leg_docs/04RS/CVT3/OUT/0000L3QW.PDF). See Irving analysis, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_31louisianagenetic.html; Analysis: "State of Florida human cloning 'ban'", Senate Bill 1726 (2003): http://www.flsenate.gov/cgibin/view_page.pl?Tab=session&Submenu=1&FT=D&File=sb1726.html&Directory=session/2003/Senate/bills/billtext/html/. See Irving analysis (May 1, 2003) at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_05floridaamendment.html; Analysis: "State of New Jersey human cloning 'ban'", Assembly Bill No. 2840/Senate Bill No. 1909 (2003): http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/2002/Bills/A3000/2840_I1.PDF. See Irving invited testimony, "Legally valid informed consent: Individual Testimony before the New Jersey State Senate Health and Human Services Committee on Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Ethical and Public Policy Considerations", New Jersey State Senate Committee on Health and Human Services, Trenton, New Jersey (November 4, 2002) at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_10newjersey1.html, and at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_14legalconsent1.html; "Testimony against the use of human biological materials in experimental research", submitted to National Bioethics Advisory Commission, on Feb. 1999, in NBAC Report and Recommendations: The Use of Human Biological Materials in Research: Ethical Issues and Policy Guidance (Vol. 1), Appendix E, p. 111 (Rockville, MD: Government Printing Office, Aug. 1999);,Rockville, Maryland (August 1999), at: http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/nbac/hbm.pdf; "Invited Congressional testimony: The immediate product of human cloning is a human being: Claims to the contrary are scientifically wrong", Congressional witness (oral and written testimony), Scientific Panel (one of 5 panelists), on "Cloning: Legal, Medical, Ethical, and Social Issues", Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and Environment of the Committee on Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, Room 2125, Rayburn House Office Building, Washington, D.C. (February 12, 1998); in Linacre Quarterly May 1999, 66:2:26-40; also at: http://www.uffl.org/irving/irvhouse.htm; http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_09cloninghuman1.html; http://www.all.org/abac/dni005.htm; "Individual testimony before the NIH Human Embryo Research Panel" (March 14, 1994); reprinted in Linacre Quarterly, 61(4):82-89 (Nov. 1994), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_32individualtestimony.html; PMID: 11652834 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgicmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11652834. [Back]

16 The usual debates about human "personhood" have been complicated in the past with efforts by groups such as PETA (using especially Peter Singer's mis-definition of "person") to obtain legal recognition for non-human animals. It is even more complicated with the new trends by transhumanists, futurists et al to define non-human machines and their "posthumans" as "persons" in laws and regulations. This would give them legal protection for their "products". This is why any "personhood" laws must stipulate that they are for human beings only. For a very short explanation of some of the ancient myths about the "self" that ground such efforts, see Dianne N. Irving, "Re New Book: "Sacred Economics" (October 8, 2012), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_204sacredeconomics.html. For very recent examples of some of the efforts to obtain legal recognition of such "personhoods", see: Steve Wise (President of the Center for the Expansion of Fundamental Rights, Inc. and director of its Nonhuman Rights Project.), "Why Elephants Require Legal Personhood" (August 20, 2012), Nonhuman Rights Project.org, at: http://www.nonhumanrightsproject.org/2012/08/20/why-elephants-require-legal-personhood/; Degen Pener, "'War Room' Directors Making Animal Rights Documentary" (July 25, 2012), HollywoodReporter.com, at: http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/war-room-pennebaker-chris-hegedus-steve-wise-animals-354455; Kaiser Legal Group, "Cases [that] Seek "Legal Personhood" for Animals" (July 3, 2012), JDSupra.com, at: http://www.jdsupra.com/post/documentViewer.aspx?fid=e4e753b3-ba6d-45ea-9186-df49e5b3a365; Jonathan Lyons, transhumanist/futurist at the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (IEET), has written several articles arguing for the "personhood" of their "posthumans": "How Do We Judge Nonhuman Beings' Personhood?" (October 4, 2012), IEET, at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/lyons20121004; "Personhood: the Thrones We Place Ourselves Upon" (June 27, 2012), IEET, at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/5985; "Determining Personhood: Not Black & White, But Many Shades of Gray" (June 11, 2012), IEET, at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/lyons20120611; "The Puzzle of Personhood" (June 4, 2012), IEET, at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/lyons20120604. See also: George Dvorsky and James Hughes, "Postgenderism: Beyond the Gender Binary" (March 2008), IEET, at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/publications

For other articles on problems with even human "personhood" definitions, see the following by Dianne N. Irving: Philosophical and Scientific Analysis of the Nature of the Early Human Embryo (Georgetown University, 1991), critiquing over 23 bioethics arguments for "delayed personhood", all of which false human embryology; a mini-summary of the dissertation is Irving, "Scientific and philosophical expertise: An evaluation of the arguments on 'personhood'", Linacre Quarterly February 1993, 60:1:18-46, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_04person1.html. See also Dianne N. Irving and human embryologist C. Ward Kischer, The Human Development Hoax: Time To Tell The Truth! (Gold Leaf Press, 1995, ISBN 1-886769-01-X; 2nd ed. 1997).

See also: Irving and human embryologist Kischer, "Scientific Response to Criticism of the California Human Rights Amendment as 'Protecting Fertilized Eggs'" (December 9, 2009), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_175responsecalifornia.html; Irving and Kischer, "Responses to Dr. Condic's 'Science' in National Catholic Register Interview" (January 6, 2010), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_172responsetocondic.html.

See also Dianne N. Irving: "Personhood 'Language' 2008 - 2011" (October 2, 2011), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_192personhoodlanguage.html; "Condic's 'Pre-Zygote' Error in 'When Does Human Life Begin?'" (November 18, 2008), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_134maureencondic1.html; "Human Embryology and Church Teachings" (September 15, 2008), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/em/em_132embryologychurch1.html; also published in The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., Supplement 2009, (Detroit: Gayle), pp. 287-312, as "Embryology, Human"; see http://www.gale.cengage.com/NCE/; also at: http://www.personhood.ca/pdfs/embryology_human.pdf; "Neither, Nor: Bryne's and Willke's Pseudo-Battle Over Human Embryonic Stem Cells" (June 19, 2008), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_129bryneandwillke.html; "Comments: CRTL Acknowledges Irving's Scientific, Moral and Legal Arguments on 'Personhood'" (July 17, 2008), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_131personhoodandcrtl.html; "Problems With Colorado's 'Personhood' Amendment: The Phrase, 'From the Moment of Fertilization'" (May 31, 2008), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_126colorado.html; "Problems with the phrase 'from conception to natural death'" (Colorado) (August 8, 2007), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_67coloradoinitiative.html; Comments: "Colorado Right To Life 'Personhood' Amendment, and Problems With 'From Conception to Natural Death'" (December 18, 2007), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_67coloradoinitiative.html; "Playing God by manipulating man: Facts and frauds of human cloning" (October 4, 2003), presented twice at the Missouri Catholic Conference Annual Assembly Workshop, Jefferson City, MO, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_22manipulatingman1.html [Back]

17 The literature on the safety and efficacy of GMO crops is enormous. Here are just some of the more reliable: EarthOpenSource.org has published several reports: "Why genetically engineered food is dangerous: New report by genetic engineers" (June 2012), at: http://www.earthopensource.org/index.php/news/60-why-genetically-engineered-food-is-dangerous-new-report-by-genetic-engineers; "Roundup and birth defects: Is the public being kept in the dark?", at: http://earthopensource.org/files/pdfs/Roundup-and-birth-defects/RoundupandBirthDefectsv5.pdf; "Why Monsanto's attempt to "disappear" tumours by using historical control data is invalid" (September 26, 2012), at: http://earthopensource.org/index.php/reports/why-monsantos-attempt-to-disappear-tumours-is-invalid; "EU Commission's draft GMO Regulation: Charter for the GM industry: EU Commission waters down GM regulation just as new research shows 'safe' GM maize causes massive tumours and premature death" (September 20, 2012), at: http://www.earthopensource.org/index.php/reports/eu-commission-draft-gmo-regulation-charter-for-the-gm-industry; "GMO MYTHS AND TRUTHS REPORT" (June 2012), at: http://www.earthopensource.org/index.php/reports/gmo-myths-and-truths; Download full report at: http://earthopensource.org/files/pdfs/GMO_Myths_and_Truths/GMO_Myths_and_Truths_1.3b.pdf; "Conflicts on the menu; A decade of industry influence at the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)" (February 2012), at: http://earthopensource.org/index.php/reports/conflicts-on-the-menu; "Roundup and birth defects: Is the public being kept in the dark?" (June 2011), at: http://earthopensource.org/index.php/reports/roundup-and-birth-defects-is-the-public-being-kept-in-the-dark; "GM Soy: Sustainable? Responsible?" (September 2012), at: http://earthopensource.org/index.php/reports/gm-soy-sustainable-responsible.

The Union of Concerned Scientists has also issued a series of reports: "A Less Thirsty Future Through Engineered Crops?" (September 13, 2012), at: http://blog.ucsusa.org/a-less-thirstyfuturethroughengineeredcrops/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+TheEquation+%28The+Equation+-+UCS+Blog%29; "High and Dry: Why Genetic Engineering Is Not Solving Agriculture's Drought Problem in a Thirsty World" (June 2012), at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/our-failing-food-system/genetic-engineering/high-and-dry.html; "Failure to Yield: Evaluating the Performance of Genetically Engineered Crops" (2009), at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/our-failing-food-system/genetic-engineering/failure-to-yield.html; "No Sure Fix; Prospects for Reducing Nitrogen Fertilizer Pollution through Genetic Engineering" (2009), at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/our-failing-food-system/genetic-engineering/no-sure-fix.html.

See also: "France orders probe after rat study links GM corn, cancer" (September 19, 2012), France 24 International News, at: http://www.france24.com/en/20120919-france-orders-probe-after-rat-study-links-gm-corncancer?ns_campaign=send_to_friend&ns_mchannel=email_marketing&ns_source=wire_en&ns_linkname=20120919_france_orders_probe_after_rat_study_links_gm_corn_cancer&ns_fee=0; Rady Ananda, "Genetic Engineering: Scientists warn of link between dangerous new pathogen and Monsanto's Roundup" (February 21, 2011), Global Research, (see extensive list of references to independent research studies), at: http://www.globalresearch.ca/genetic-engineering-scientists-warn-of-link-between-dangerous-new-pathogen-and-monsanto-s-roundup/23303. [Back]

18 See Dianne N. Irving: "Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT" (July 23, 2005), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html; "Analysis of Legislative and Regulatory Chaos in the U.S.: Asexual Human Reproduction and Genetic Engineering" (Oct. 20, 2004), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_81chaosasexgen1.html; "The impact of scientific 'misinformation' on other fields: Philosophy, theology, biomedical ethics and public policy", Accountability in Research April 1993, 2(4):243-272, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_124misinformation1.html; "Politization of science and philosophy: The "delayed personhood" debates and conceptual transfer" Centre d'Etudes sur la Reconnaissance de la Personne Humaine (CERPH) News Letter, Issue No. 2, December 1994, at: http://www.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~macer/CERPH/Previous.htm; also at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_62goubepoliticization.html [Back]

1, 2, 3,