82 Articles at Lifeissues.net

The Association for Interdisciplinary Research in Values and Social Changes has graciously allowed Lifeissues to reproduce material from its Research Bulletin which provides information and research on the medical, psychological and social aspects of abortion. Articles of approximately 4,000 words will be considered for publication in Research Bulletin.

Research Bulletin: all submissions and letters should be addressed to Marie Hagan, Executive Secretary, Association for Interdisiplinary Research in Values and Social Change, 419 7th Street NW, Suite 500, Washington D.C. 20004.

Contact: info@abortionresearch.com



The Psychology of Rape

Rape is a topic that is always viewed as very difficult to address, presumably because it deals with complex psychological problems and because it involves sensitive sexual issues. However, those who support abortion rights argue that abortion provides a necessary benefit to the woman, who is pregnant as a result of rape. This discussion on the psychological aspects of rape will challenge this assumption.

Date posted: 2013-11-02

Rape and Abortion

As a woman, I can hardly imagine a more violent action against a woman than rape. Not only is a rape physically violent, but because this act involves an attack against the deepest, life-bearing part of our psyche, the violence is also psychological and spiritual. Every fiber of our being shouts out the perversion of the event, and we long to help the woman who has been so violated. We want to undo the rape. But nothing we can do will make her "un-raped". The reality is that we can only do our best to help her to heal from the horror.

Date posted: 2013-11-02

The Use of the Abortifacient Mifepristone (RU-486) in the Developing World

The use of non-surgical (medical) abortion in the developing world has had great appeal for abortion advocates. Surgical procedures in third world countries with poor medical infrastructure, lack of dependable transportation to emergency centers, and even inadequate water supplies pose health risks for patients electing to have a surgical abortion. On the other hand, ..the reality is that surgical abortions are still necessary in a number of cases because the pill fails; medical abortions are done in settings with inadequate backup to care for complications; and hemorrhaging, a common side-effect of RU-486 abortions, is harder to control in third world environments. Unfortunately, there is a tendency to disregard such problems by enthusiastic abortion advocates, eager to expand abortion use in these countries.

Date posted: 2012-08-23

The Introduction and Use of the Abortifacient Mifepristone (RU-486) in the United States

Though the abortifacient mifepristone, popularly known as RU-486, is a relatively new drug, the desire for some easy, safe, effective, and non-invasive means of ending or reversing pregnancy goes back several centuries. In the modern era, however, those efforts took a back seat once surgical abortion became the norm, especially when states began allowing abortion under certain circumstances in the 1960s and the U.S. Supreme Court made abortion on demand a constitutional right in the United States in Roe v. Wade in 1973. ... The Guttmacher Institute estimated that in 2008, more than a quarter of all abortions done at 9 weeks gestation or earlier were chemical abortions and both the overall percentage of chemical abortions and the number of clinics offering these abortions have been steadily increasing. If things continue trending as they are, it means that we can expect more women will die, along with tens of thousands more of their unborn children.

Date posted: 2012-08-23

Wantedness & Coercion: Key Factors in Understanding Women's Mental Health After Abortion

Many women experience unwanted abortions under conditions of varying degrees of pressure, coercion or force. Many women experience uninformed abortions, with very inadequate counseling if any. These women have no awareness about possible harmful effects of abortion, no information about the full range of options available to them regarding babies they want, and no information about their own risk factors for possible adverse reactions.

Date posted: 2012-03-06

Toward Evidence-Based Practice: Use of Scientific Literature Reviews with a Focus on Suicide Risk and Abortion

Informed consent for medical procedures occurs when patients adequately understand their condition along with the benefits, risks, and limitations of treatment alternatives. Health care professionals are responsible for educating patients in a manner that reflects the current scientific literature; however, recent concern raised in the medical community suggests this is a too infrequently realized ideal. Clinicians often lack the requisite skills and time to interpret the ever-expanding scientific literature necessary to optimally inform their practice and provide patients with accurate up-to-date synopses of the literature that facilitate truly informed health care choices. In a report released by the U.S. Institute of Medicine titled "Crossing the Quality Chasm" the authors noted "Medical science and technology have advanced at an unprecedented rate during the past half-century. In tandem has come growing complexity of health care, which today is characterized by more to know, more to do, more to manage, more to watch, and more people involved than ever before." Research which should be driving positive changes in medical practice is often ignored for many years, sometimes decades. As described in the Institute of Medicine publication referred to above: "It now takes an average of 17 years for new knowledge generated by randomized controlled trials to be incorporated into practice, and even then application is highly uneven."

Date posted: 2011-04-10

Perceptions of Preabortion Counseling Inadequacy and Decision Disagreement as Predictors of Subsequent Relationship Problems and Psychological Stress in Men and Women

The association between elective abortion and psychological stress in women has been established in numerous studies. Considerably less research has investigated the relationship between induced abortion and stress in the male partners of women who abort.

Date posted: 2010-04-03

Mothers Living in Poverty:

Because physical violence as measured at baseline was not found to be predictive of the choice to abort, the post-abortion enhanced risk for violence detected in this study may have been attributed to abortion-related stress introduced into the relationship and/or elevated psychological stress in one or both partners. For example, a man may become very upset that his "baby" was aborted against his will. Alternatively, the woman may suffer from depression if she chose abortion for situational as opposed to personal reasons and she may become withdrawn, triggering anger in a man prone to violent behavior. Another possibility is that for some women the physical violence began after the birth of the first child and prior to the second pregnancy, thereby factoring into the decision to abort.

Date posted: 2009-04-16

Abortion Mental Health Research

Recent years have brought a dramatic increase in the number of scientific studies published world-wide documenting the psychological damage frequently ushered in by abortion. Negative effects of abortion on various aspects of women's mental health and quality of life are now well-established. The newer research has overcome many methodological shortcomings plaguing earlier work, leading to much clearer answers to several basic questions including the following: 1) Does abortion introduce risks to women's mental heath? 2) Does abortion adversely impact other aspects of women's lives (e.g. intimate relationships, parenting, etc.) even if they do not suffer from a diagnosable ailment? 3) Are the risks associated with abortion greater than those associated with childbirth?

Date posted: 2008-07-05

Preterm Birth and Abortion

The supporters of abortion on demand in the United States have always argued that abortion was a safe procedure. They have tended to limit their analysis of abortion complications to those that occur to the woman at the time of the abortion. They have refused to acknowledge the possibility of long term negative effects from abortion. One of the long term complications that might be caused by abortion is the possibility that the woman having an abortion is at increased risk for having a premature birth in a subsequent pregnancy.

Date posted: 2008-05-18

The Decline of Partner Relationships in the Aftermath of Abortion

The identification of a pregnancy as "unintended" or"unwanted" is usually based on relationship factors with such pregnancies more common when relationships are just beginning, nearing an end, or are otherwise unstable. Decisions regarding resolution of unplanned pregnancies are likewise relational, involving the couple's connection to each other and each partner's relationship to the developing fetus. When pregnancy is terminated, the abortion becomes a part of the couple's shared history with potential to affect their future. An attempt is made in this article to integrate the limited available evidence in order to formulate a clearer picture of how abortion may adversely impact partner relationships.

Date posted: 2007-04-21

A Statistical Analysis of the Impact of State Level Pro-Life Legislation

The number of abortions consistently increased throughout the 1970s and the 1980s. That trend reversed itself during the 1990s as the number of legal abortions declined by 18.4% between 1990 and 1999. A number of reasons are likely responsible for this decline. One factor that cannot be overlooked is the impact of pro-life legislation.

Date posted: 2007-02-10

An Online Pilot Study to Investigate the Effects of Abortion on Men

Given these potential benefits, a pilot study was conducted to determine the usefulness of an online survey to collect data concerning the effects of abortion on men. Data obtained through this pilot study are summarized following a review of research pertaining to post abortion men. It should be noted that current U.S. laws allow women to have an abortion for any reason at any time during pregnancy. Men have no legal power in the abortion decision even if they are married to women who choose abortion. Furthermore, there is no legal requirement to inform the father of the child being aborted.

Date posted: 2006-05-26

The Science, Studies and Sociology of the Abortion Breast Cancer Link

Abortion is a causal factor in the development of breast cancer in the same way cigarettes cause lung cancer. Both put the users at higher risk, even though the majority will not be affected. Like cigarettes, which cause lung cancer to form in 15% of those who smoke, abortion causes breast cancer in about 5% of women who have an abortion. This results in approximately 10,000 cases of breast cancer attributable to abortion a year... The vast majority of smokers never get lung cancer yet we tell the public not to smoke. Women considering abortion need to know about the abortion breast cancer link (ABC link) so they can give an informed consent. This article will explain the breast physiology and the epidemiologic criteria supporting the ABC link and the sociologic factors which cause this risk to remain largely unknown to both medical professionals and the public.

Date posted: 2005-07-20

The Eugenically Driven Female Spirit: Rhetorical Continuity from Margaret Sanger to Today

Population control was a natural extension of Sanger's eugenic desire for population "quality, not quantity"; she insisted, "a qualitative factor as opposed to a quantitative one is of primary importance in dealing with the great masses of humanity." She was one of the first and most influential activists to extend the influence of eugenics by concentrating on population control (that is, concentrating on the "not quantity" side of the eugenic equation), and her organizations made sure she would not be the last. Indeed, scientific demography had its ideological origins in eugenics. Demography's attitude toward people was also determined by the "quantity vs. quality" dichotomy. Thus, the concern for reducing the number of people born was interwoven with the eugenic desire to reducing the number of "unfit" people born. (By Angela Franks)

Date posted: 2005-04-07

The Uniquely Destructive Psychological Experience of Elective Abortion:

When the studies using comparison groups are conveyed to the public, it will be difficult to deny the challenges introduced by abortion to women's mental health and quality of life. As the published research validates the suffering of countless women like Amanda, who profoundly grieve the loss of a child, more effort should be directed toward pre-abortion counseling. Had someone shared the experiences of other women with Amanda as she contemplated her abortion several years ago, her choice may have been different. The prevention of post-abortion emotional pain and mental health problems is ultimately far better for individual women and for society than reliance on subsequent intervention.

Date posted: 2005-01-31

Legal Liability in Referral or Recommendation of Induced Abortion

Many states have laws which regulate various methods of referral for medical care by prohibiting or limiting "fee splitting" between the referral source and the provider of the medical care. Referral sources may also engage in the illegal practice of medicine. Some of these activities may be a crime and they may be prohibited by injunctive relief or other legal remedy. This article summarizes cases where these activities have been prohibited in the context of abortion.

Date posted: 2004-05-24

Thomas W. Strahan

We all mourn the loss of Thomas W. Strahan. He died suddenly, of a heart attack, in his home on the evening of November 13, 2003.

Date posted: 2004-05-24

Incomplete or Inaccurate Reporting of Information on 47 Death Certificates of U.S. Women who Died from Confirmed or Suspected Legal Abortion: 1972-1992

Those who support legal abortion claim that the incidence of death of women from legal abortion is lower than the incidence of death of women from childbirth. This claim has been the subject of considerable criticism. Information on death certificates is an important source of information to determine the cause of death. This study was designed to attempt to find out to what sorts of errors or omissions may occur in death certificates of women who died from a confirmed or suspected legal induced abortion which may understate the incidence of death of women from legal abortion.

Date posted: 2003-10-23

Adolescent Arguments in the Abortion Debate

Presented are ten strategies of argumentation that are characterized by their manipulative approach to debate. The purpose is to win the debate, not clarify the issues. The arguments must be won at any cost, even if it means switching the terms of the debate and engaging in inconsistent and incompatible arguments. These arguments can be very irrational and it is very irritating to debate with someone who doesn't mind being irrational. That is why such debates often deteriorate into emotional conflicts. This is, of course, counter productive to educating people about the abortion issue.

Date posted: 2002-07-01

The Perinatal Hospice: Hope for the Helpless

Parents, when given loving support, freedom from abandonment and careful counsel as to clinical expectations, will choose the alternative of perinatal hospice, however brief that time may be. Parental responses have been overwhelmingly positive. These parents are allowed the bitter-sweetness of their child's birth and too-soon departure. Grief lessens as time passes and parents rest secure in the knowledge that they shared in their baby's life, treating the child with the same dignity as a terminally ill adult.

Date posted: 2002-05-01

Therapeutic Influence in Abortion Counseling and Procedures: Creating the Illusion of Well-Being

This article examines some of the important ways in which contemporary abortion counseling and procedures attempt to produce a momentary illusion of personal well-being, health, and psychic security in the woman. This procedures also attempts to create the illusion that there is no human life in the womb in order to attempt to achieve the desired therapeutic outcome in the woman.

Date posted: 2002-03-01

The Influence Of Therapeutic Culture On Abortion Decisions Of The U.S. Supreme Court

Every culture or society has certain dominant ways of viewing an individual in relationship to that culture or society. How individuals are viewed in relationship to culture or society also may change over a period of time. As a certain way gains ascendancy, it will begin to influence how law is understood and interpreted by the courts.

Date posted: 2002-01-01

Rapid Repeat Pregnancy Following Induced Abortion Among Adolescent and Low Income Women

Rapid repeat pregnancy is defined as a subsequent pregnancy within 12 to 24 months of an earlier pregnancy. This article discusses rapid repeat pregnancy following legally induced abortion particularly with respect to adolescent and low income women in the United States.

Date posted: 2001-11-01

Life Link Support System for Women with At Risk Pregnancies

The Life Link support group concept was established by Wisconsin Right to Life in response to the reinterpretation of the Waukesha Memorial Hospital policy which expanded permissible abortions to include pregnancies deemed life threatening to the fetus.

Date posted: 2001-07-01

The Abortion and Eugenics Policies of Nazi Germany

This paper concerns abortion and eugenics in Nazi Germany but it is first necessary to explore abortion and eugenics in the United States, and in Weimar Germany, the democracy Germany had for fourteen years (1918-1933) prior to Hitler's coming to power. This paper will discuss birth control and sterilization also, particularly sterilization; these cannot be separated from discussions of eugenics and abortion.

Date posted: 2001-03-01

The Natural Law Philosophy of Lon L. Fuller in Contrast to Roe v. Wade and Its Progeny

In contrast to legal positivism, the legal principles, as outlined by Lon Fuller, emphasize the importance of legal recognition of the interactive process of individuals and institutions in society, the importance of reciprocity, recognizes the role that law plays in making possible an effective realization of morality, distinguishes between the morality of duty and the morality of aspiration, and attempts to create a legal system where there is tacit cooperation between the lawgiver and the citizen as to what is moral or immoral, just or unjust. These principles help provide an additional framework for public and private dialogue to resolve the seemingly intractable legal and political dispute over induced abortion that continues to plague contemporary American society.

Date posted: 2001-01-01

Respect for Life: The Foundation of Law

This article discusses some of the basic building blocks for the understanding of law and politics and the language that pro-lifers need to use in talking about subjects such as abortion and euthanasia. Human beings and the things that are good for human beings are very different. It is essential that pro-lifers not use the same language for both -- but we do. For example, pro-lifers may use the word "value" and argue that human beings have value. We also argue that things have value. The purpose of this article is to attempt to point out that this is a very serious mistake.

Date posted: 2000-07-01

Morbidity and Mortality from Induced Abortion in Selected Foreign Countries

This article reviews published articles on abortion in the countries of India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Turkey, Philippines, Japan, Zambia, and Finland. Based on this review, it appears that abortions are frequently performed in a haphazard, slipshod, illegal, secretive or deceptive manner. Most often, abortion is an important means of birth control. There is also substantial evidence that induced abortion contributes to an increased risk of HIV or AIDS, particularly among younger women. Specific examples are provided which demonstrate that abortion contributes to preventable maternal mobidity and mortality.

Date posted: 2000-05-01

Differential Adverse Impact on Teenagers Who Undergo Induced Abortion

The following article describes some of the ways in which abortion has a greater and more substantial harmful impact on adolescents compared with older women. This includes adverse psychosocial aspects, physical injury, postabortion infections and reproductive impairment. Adolescent abortion may also increase the risk of breast cancer because of the loss of the protective effect of an early full term pregnancy.

Date posted: 2000-03-01

Psycho-Social Aspects of Late Term Abortions

Women who have induced abortions at 16 gestational weeks or later are more likely to be teenagers under the age of 18, black women, unemployed women, or women covered by Medicaid. These abortions are also more apt to be performed if the reason was possible fetal health problems, if the womans' parents wanted her to have an abortion, or if the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest. Women were significantly less likely to have a later abortion if they were age 30 or older, if they had no religious affiliation, if they were having health problems, or if their husband or partner wanted them to have an abortion.

Date posted: 2000-01-01

The Critical Influence of the Prospective Father on Abortion-Decision Making

Conspicuously absent from most discussions of the abortion issue are considerations of third party interests, especially those of the father. Despite the fact that the prospective father may be lacking in legal rights, he is nevertheless very likely to be an important part of the decision for abortion or childbirth. For example, several studies have found that the attitude of the prospective father is an important factor in the stress, anxiety or depression of the pregnant woman.

Date posted: 1999-11-01

Induced Abortion Among Chinese Women: II. Health and Well-Being of Women and Children

This article attempts to document how induced abortion is harmful to the health and well-being of Chinese women and children. It primarily is a summary and review of studies of Chinese women living in mainland China, but also includes a limited number of studies of Chinese women in Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Many of the studies are in Chinese and available only as an English abstract.

Date posted: 1999-09-01

Induced Abortion Among Chinese Women: I. Sociological Aspects

The following studies provide details about the extent to which induced abortion, including repeated abortions, are involved in population control; the various techniques used to carry out population control policies; the characteristics of Chinese women who obtain abortions; additional moral and ethical issues related to abortion, such as coerced abortions; sex-selection abortions; and late term abortions. A subsequent article will describe some of the adverse physical, psychological, social and reproductive effects of induced abortion on Chinese women and children.

Date posted: 1999-07-01

Induced Abortion in Latin America: Social, Cultural, and Technical Aspects

Section I of this article briefly discusses certain cultural aspects of the region which would increase the likelihood of illegal abortion. Section II discusses induced abortion as a violation of beliefs, conscience, or religion of the women. Section III summarizes published studies which discuss characteristics of those who obtain induced abortions, and why women obtain them, as well as some of the abortion techniques used and resulting physical and psychological complications.

Date posted: 1999-05-01

Pregnancy-Related Deaths of African Women (II)

This article is a continuation of Pregnancy-Related Death of African Women (I) which concentrated on Background and Risk Factors. This article summarizes hospital and community based studies of pregnancy-related deaths of African women in several countries. It also includes a description of the abortion methods used, if described in the article, as well as the identity of those performing the abortion. Demographic data on the background of women who obtain induced abortions as well as who dies from pregnancy-related causes is also included. Although the studies have some important limitations, they also provide valuable insights of the various reasons why African women die from abortion and childbirth.

Date posted: 1999-03-01

Pregnancy-Related Death of African Women (I)

There is an increasing call in many quarters for the economically developed to encourage the increased use of abortion in third-world countries, including Africa. This is being advocated on the grounds that childbirth is dangerous to women and that the legalization of abortion will decrease the risk of death from pregnancy-related causes. Available data indicates that death of women is excessive, particularly in third-world countries, but that the various causes of these deaths are most often due to poor maternal health-facilities in these regions, coupled with poor medical care.

Date posted: 1999-01-01

Childbirth as Protective of the Health of Women in Contrast to Induced Abortion-IV: Reproductive Complications and Infections

This bibliography is the fourth and final article in a series which provides evidence of the protective effects of childbirth and the detrimental effects of induced abortion on the health of women. The specific subject involves reproductive complications and infections associated with pregnancy.

Date posted: 1998-07-01

Childbirth as Protective of the Health of Women in Contrast to Induced Abortion: (III) Mental Health and Wellbeing

This bibliography is the third in a series, which provides evidence of the protective effects of childbirth and the detrimental effects of induced abortion on the health of women. The specific subject is mental health and well-being.

Date posted: 1998-05-01

Childbirth as Protective of the Health of Women in Contrast to Induced Abortion: (II) Smoking, Alcohol and Drug Use

This bibliography is the second in a series, which provides evidence of the protective effects of childbirth, and the detrimental effects of induced abortion on the health of women. The specific subject is smoking, alcohol and drug use.

Date posted: 1998-03-31

Childbirth as Protective of the Health of Women in Contrast to Induced Abortion. (I.) Breast, Ovarian, and Endometrial Cancer

There is a long-standing, poorly examined belief that "abortion is safer than childbirth." However, this has never been substantiated by research. One relatively unexamined issue is the important role that childbirth and lactation play in the over-all health of a woman. The failure of the body to experience these events appears to cause malfunctions, which frequently results in health problems later in life, including possible increased risks from various types of cancer. This bibliography summarizes key findings from articles in medical and social journals, which provide evidence of the protective effects of childbirth, compared to induced abortion. It is the first of a series of articles on the subject and specifically discusses breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancer.

Date posted: 1998-01-01

Anesthesia or Analgesia Related Deaths of Women From Legal Abortion: The Need for Increased Regulation

This article reviews some of the various methods and kinds of anesthesia and/or analgesia used in connection with induced abortion and the risk factors with respect to the various methods. In addition, some of the accumulated evidence of compliance or non-compliance of abortion-facilities with general standards developed for the administration of anesthesia will be reviewed.

Date posted: 1997-11-01

Sexual Dysfunction Related to Induced Abortion

Although induced abortion is touted as a form of sexual freedom and liberation, its effects often lead to various forms of sexual dysfunction and impairment of relationships. As seen in the following studies and anecdotal reports, both men and women frequently report sexual impotency, aversion to sex, loss of intimacy, unexpected guilt and extra-marital affairs as a result of induced abortion.

Date posted: 1997-09-01

Medical Techniques in Connection with Induced Abortion to Assess Fetal Development and Remove Tissue and Organs

This article describes some of the techniques, procedures, uses, or experiments on the bodies, tissue and/or organs of unborn children, either at the time of the induced abortion or subsequent to the abortion. They represent only a very small sample of the many various research experiments and techniques, involving removal of tissue or organs from unborn children. These tests and experiments, although performed on someone officially deemed to be a non-person, also frequently have the remarkable ability to demonstrate the humanity of the unborn child, and indeed, are referred to as human by many of the authors of the studies.

Date posted: 1997-07-01

Recent Research on the Adverse Psychological And Social Effects of Induced Abortion

This article describes some of the recently published studies on the psychological and social effects of induced abortion. Many of these studies were on populations outside of the United States. The reason is because this is where the vast majority of research on the effects of induced abortion is being done at the present time. These studies are examples of the growing body of literature on the adverse psychological effects of induced abortion.

Date posted: 1997-05-01

Legal Protection of the Unborn Child Outside the Context of Induced Abortion

This article reviews the current state of the law regarding the duty to protect the unborn child in the womb in the non-abortion context. Special emphasis will be placed upon neglect, prenatal torts, property law, family law, wrongful death and criminal homicide of an unborn child.

Date posted: 1997-03-01

Claims of Injury Involving Induced Abortions by Teenagers without Parental Notice or Consent

Substantial numbers of pregnant adolescents do not consult either their mother or father prior to obtaining an abortion. The cases of teenage abortion, without parental notice of consent and where there were subsequent injury claims, indicate that adverse physical and psychological risks were significantly understated or believed to be minimal. This was evident in the statements of medical doctors, counseling information provided by abortion-facilities, and the attitudes of adults who were involved. This article examines several typical cases.

Date posted: 1997-01-31

Induced Abortion as a Contributing Factor In Maternal Mortality or Pregnancy-Related Death in Women

Consent or informational forms provided to women at abortion-facilities also routinely make the claim that abortion is safer than childbirth. This mortality data, however questionable or inaccurate, is one of the major reasons for the claim that legal abortion is safer than childbirth for women. This article finds that the actual data does not support such a claim.

Date posted: 1996-11-01

Lack of Individualized Counseling Regarding Risk Factors for Induced Abortion: A Violation of Informed Consent. Part2

This article is a continuation of Research Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 1, July/August 1996, Part 1, to further demonstrate that the information provided on informational or consent forms used by freestanding abortion-facilities is not tailored to the needs of the individual woman.

Date posted: 1996-09-30

Misrepresentation or Ignorance of Fetal Development as a Factor in Psychological Injury Following Induced Abortion

This article is designed to help provide background information as an aid in passing legislation, requiring comprehensive and accurate fetal development information, as part of informed consent, or more effectively utilizing current legislation or case law, which already requires informed consent for medical procedures generally. This same information may also be of assistance in raising legal claims based upon deceptive trade practices, against those who provide abortions, or claims based upon fraud or deceit or negligent non-disclosure.

Date posted: 1996-05-30

Legal Liability for Physical Injury or Infection Following Induced Abortion

This article describes abortion malpractice cases with an emphasis on physical injury or infection. It is a sequel to previous articles on abortion malpractice. (Research Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1, Nov / Dec 1995; Research Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jan / Feb 1996.) Medical malpractice occurs when there are errors of omission or commission by health care professionals that fall below the normal or appropriate standard of care. In order to be successful in an action for medical malpractice, the plaintiff/patient must establish: (1) that a legally recognized duty of care was owed to the plaintiff by the defendant health care professional, or a person acting in the capacity of a health care professional; (2) that the defendant breached this duty of care by failing to meet the required standard of care; (3) that the plaintiff has suffered a legally recognized injury and has been damaged as a result and; (4) that the injury was caused by the breach of duty.

Date posted: 1996-03-31

Legal Liability for Emotional Injury Following Induced Abortion

The legal liability for personal injury resulting from induced abortion is part of the general malpractice or negligence law of a State. In some States recovery for abortion injury, including emotional injury, has been established by State statute. Many lawyers lack knowledge about the nature and extent of abortion-related emotional injury. A knowledge of the subject will improve the client interview process, aid in the proper selection of an expert witness, improve the presentation of the case in court, and should result in larger jury verdicts or settlements.

Date posted: 1996-01-31

Abortion Malpractice: When Patient Needs and Abortion Practice Collide

Not all women who elect abortion have a traumatic response. Nor, however, is abortion such a benign psychological experience that women should be misinformed about its significant emotional risks for some individuals. The fact is, insufficient scientific data is available in this country to conclusively determine how many women and men are negatively impacted by abortion and which types of individuals are at risk compared to other possible alternatives. Though existing research has identifiable methodological weaknesses, in the aggregate, these studies suggest a direction of harm and a significant percent of individuals likely to be negatively impacted from elected abortion.

Date posted: 1995-11-30

Induced Abortion as a Violation of Conscience of the Woman

The Court in Planned Parenthood v. Casey was engaging in pure speculation when it declared that the abortion decision may represent a decision based on conscience or spiritual imperatives. As will be seen in the following discussion, the abortion decision violates the conscience, at least of most women, and does not represent a spiritual imperative.

Date posted: 1995-09-30

Fragmentation of the Personality Associated with Post-Abortion Trauma

In a follow-up article to “Post-Trauma Sequelae Following Abortion And Other Traumatic Events,” Dr. Brende explains that post-traumatic fragmentation of the personality following abortion has important personal as well as social implications. He points out that victims of post-traumatic self-fragmentation intermittently become self-destructive, depressed and/or antisocial. Traumatized adolescents and young women are reported to be particularly vulnerable to the loss of innocence and idealism and meaning for their lives.

Date posted: 1995-07-31

Challenging the Language of the Culture of Death

The language of the culture of death is an all-encompassing vocabulary of dehumanization directed against society's most vulnerable individuals, both before and after birth. It includes the language of contemporary society as well as past societies. The culture of death consists of two wars: a physical war and a verbal war. When applied to abortion, the war of words against the unborn took place in the minds and hearts of the perpetrators long before it was implemented in hospitals and abortion chambers. A perceptive way of putting this is described by Pulitzer Prize winning editorial page director Paul Greenberg of the Arkansas Democrat Gazette who said, “Those whom we want out of the way, must first be dehumanized… the least of these must be aborted in words before it becomes permissible to abort them in deed.”

Date posted: 1995-05-31

Induced Abortion as Birth Control

It is clear that abortion is well established as a form of either primary or secondary birth control. Contemporary contraceptive methods are frequently erratic or ineffective for many reasons. Repeat abortion as a form of birth control is of particular concern and appears to be related to a variety of psychosocial problems. Whatever the motivation for pregnancy or abortion, or whether the abortion is a first or repeat abortion, the bottom line is that abortion ends up in being the ultimate form of birth control.

Date posted: 1995-03-31

Factors in Pregnancy Decision Making by Teenagers

The major factors in pregnancy decision making by teenagers are: (1) the personality of the teenager, including her attitude toward the pregnancy and previous reproductive history; (2) the attitude and degree of involvement of parents and other family members, the prospective father and peers; (3) the cultural and public policy aspects which may favor or disfavor childbirth.

Date posted: 1995-01-30

Portraits of Post-Abortive Fathers Devastated by the Abortion Experience

Conspicuously absent from most discussions of the abortion issue are considerations of third party interests, especially those of the father. Limited research has suggested that any man who deeply cares is likely to be devastated by the experience. Stories by post-abortive fathers have begun to appear in recent years and they confirm the potentially devastating effects that can occur.This article presents a glimpse into the post-abortion trauma experienced by fathers.

Date posted: 1994-11-30

Guidelines For Interpreting Abortion Opinion Polls

When people think of opinion polls, they often remark, “You can prove anything with a poll.” While there may be an element of truth in the statement, there are some less cynical guidelines to evaluate poll results. These guidelines will be illustrated with abortion polls, although they generally can be applied to polls on any issue.

Date posted: 1994-10-01

Post-Trauma Sequelae Following Abortion and Other Traumatic Events

Abortion, the most frequently performed surgical procedure in this country, may often be experienced by the woman as a traumatic event causing post-abortion symptoms, particularly when there are pre-disposing factors. Symptoms often meet the criteria of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, which is a recognized psychiatric disorder.

Date posted: 1994-07-31

The Effects of Abortion on Marriage and Other Committed Relationships

The body of this early research combined with clinical observations and anecdotal evidence, presents a strong case for more attention given to pre-abortion counseling for both the woman and the man particularly in situations where the couple intends to continue the relationship. The threat of disruption and even sometimes complete disintegration of the relationship is very real and cannot be ignored in the process of making a decision about a crisis pregnancy.

Date posted: 1994-05-31

Grief Responses from Induced Abortion

Two studies on grief reactions relating to induced abortion are summarized in this Newsletter. One study describes pre-abortion and short-term post-abortion reactions. The other study describes long term reactions. These studies did attempt to use objective test methods and criteria to measure the multifaceted aspects of grief. This factor alone separates them from the vast majority of psychological studies reported in the literature.

Date posted: 1994-03-31

Abortion Attitudes And Experiences In A Group Of Male Prisoners

The experience of men with abortion has been little studied generally and this is the first reported study on male prisoners and abortion. The study is also unusual because it is not based upon the usual analysis of data, but instead is based upon the direct anecdotal statements of the men themselves.

Date posted: 1994-01-31

Physical and Psychological Injury in Women Following Abortion

This study is based upon a self-reported questionnaire completed by 344 postabortal women at Akron Pregnancy Services in Akron, Ohio, between November 1988 and May 1993. Survey data and client experience indicate that abortion, in most cases, hurts rathers than helps women. The author concludes that as we reclaim our most basic instincts to protect and nurture our young, we will also need to nurture and offer hope and healing to abortion's adult victims.

Date posted: 1993-10-01

Induced Abortion as an Independent Risk Factor for Breast Cancer

The good news about abortion and breast cancer—in fact, the only good news—is that induced abortion is an elective procedure; a matter of choice, as it were. A woman can simply elect not to have one. The worst news about the link between abortion breast cancer is that it is news at all, considering the one-sided evidence that has been piling up around the globe for decades now.

Date posted: 1993-07-01

Women's Health and Abortion II

Part two of a two part series on Women's health and Abortion. This issues focues on the link between induced abortions and various deleterious health effects including breast, ovarian and colo-rectal cancers.

Date posted: 1993-04-01

Women's Health And Abortion I

Approximately one half of all abortions in the United States are repeat abortions and thus constitute a major portion of all abortions. A number of studies have compared women repeating abortion with women with a history of one abortion or no abortion history. These studies are particularly valuable as the control group includes a woman who has already had one abortion and it is possible to ascertain The trend or direction of the particular aspect of health as the number of abortions increases. This provides the essential information to determine whether or not there is an improvement in health or a deterioration in health.

Date posted: 1993-01-01

Planned Parenthood vs Casey

The decision in Planned Parenthood vs Casey altered the abortion landscape. In Roe vs Wade abortion was merely tolerated and treated as a privacy right. But now abortion has been embraced as a constitutional liberty. However, the Court has confused liberty with license. License is the indulgence of the arbitrary will of the individual without regard to ethics or law or respect for the rights of others. Liberty is the exercise of the will in its moral freedom with justice to all.

Date posted: 1992-08-18

Personality Characteristics Of Women Who Had Induced Abortions

Women obtaining abortions are not typical of other women generally. Various studies have demonstrated that they frequently exhibit a variety of psycho-social problems, are more anti-social, have low self-esteem, are more distant or detached, and destroy life in the womb which may be an acting out of self-destructive behavior. They also often undergo personality changes shortly before their abortion.

Date posted: 1992-08-01

Policy Considerations in the Public Funding of Abortion

As women repeat abortion there is evidence of personal, social and health deterioration which increases the likelihood that public assistance will be needed. The degree of attachment to males is lessened as abortion is repeated which tends to decrease socio-economic stability. Thus, the repeated utilization of abortion appears to lead not to economic prosperity or social well-being, but to an increasing feminization of poverty.

Date posted: 1991-08-01

Induced Abortion and its Relationship to Child Abuse and Neglect

At the time of the debate over the legalization of abortion...abortion advocates claimed that the reason we need legalized abortion is because then there would be only wanted children and child abuse rates would be reduced. Somehow it didn't sound right, but it was unclear what the facts were. I undertook the responsibility to determine the facts...

Date posted: 1991-04-01

Post Abortion Stress

This issue covers Post Abortion Stress and includes the articles: Stress Reactions in Women Related to Induced Abortion; General Stress Response Found At Time of Abortion; Post Abortion Syndrome From A Doctor’s Viewpoint ; and Post-Abortion Syndrome as a Variant of Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome

Date posted: 1991-01-01

Adolescent Abortion

A special issue focusing on adolescents and abortion: Detrimental Effects of Adolescent Abortion by Wanda Franz, Health Issues in Adolescent Pregnancy Decision-Making,and Psycho-Social Aspects of Adolescent Abortion, by Thomas Strahan.

Date posted: 1990-10-01

The Incidence and Effects of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Women Following Induced Abortion

The increased tendency of women to abuse the use of alcohol and other drugs such as cocaine or methamphetamine following induced abortion has a potentially increased risk for women in a variety of health and social aspects. Alcohol impairs the immune system and places the women at risk for a variety of diseases including AIDS. Social deterioration may occur due to sexual dysfunction, increased tendency to provoke fights, mental depression, memory loss, hospitalization, job loss, increased isolation and self-destructive behavior. Maternal health and well-being of future offspring may be impaired due to alcohol or drug abuse especially if used during subsequent pregnancies intended to be carried to term. It is clear that the abuse of alcohol and drugs following induced abortion is a potentially serious health and social problem and requires more attention than it is currently receiving.

Date posted: 1990-06-01

Abortion Decision Making

A special issue highlighting factors in the decision to abort. Included articles are Fetal Development Information: An Essential Aspect of Informed Consent by Monte Harris Liebman, M.D.; Women Report Lack of Informed Consent by Wanda Franz, Ph.D.; and Male Attitudes Are Important in Abortion Decision-Making by Thomas W. Strahan

Date posted: 1990-04-01

Children Born Following Refused Abortion

The authors of Born Unwanted and their supporters are apparently willing to kill the children for the reasons stated in each of the studies. But on what basis can it be argued that the differences are so great that death is a solution? Is anyone who decides to become a plumber instead of a professor destined to have his life questioned? Is anyone who doesn't like his job a questionable candidate for the human race? Are people in unhappy marriages worthy of the death penalty?

Date posted: 1989-10-01

Special Issue on Repeat Abortion

The statistics on repeat abortions are very disturbing. Abortion is supposed to be something which is done with "great concern." It is frequently said, "no one has an abortion casually without giving it a lot of thought. " If abortion is taken so seriously by women there should be very few repeat abortions. And yet nearly 1/2 of all abortions in the U.S. are in this category…Repeat abortion represents a failure of the pro-choice rhetoric.

Date posted: 1989-06-01

Health Effects of Abortion

This issue includes Report on Health Effects of Abortion on Women: Conflicts and Needed Research, by Wanda Franz, Ph.D., President; Characteristics of Women Seeking Services at an Independent Crisis Pregnancy Center, by Wanda Franz, Ph.D; Increased Smoking Rates In Women Following Induced Abortion, by Thomas Strahan; and reports that indicate abortion adversely impacts upon the parental attitude towards the legal obligation of a parent to provide for the care and support of a child.

Date posted: 1989-04-01

Delayed Reaction to Abortion

This newsletter contains the following articles: Delayed Negative Emotional Reactions Noted in Post-Abortion Women Compared to Post-Miscarriage Women by Monte Liebman; The Impact of Induced Abortion on Surviving Siblings: Case Studies by Thomas W. Strahan; and Abortion Effects on Rape/Incest Victims by David C. Reardon.

Date posted: 1988-10-01

African-Americans and Induced Abortion

It has been estimated that since 1973 black women have had about 10 million abortions. Michael Novak had calculated "Since the number of current living blacks (in the U.S.) is 31 million, the missing 10 million represents and enormous loss for, without abortion, America's black community would now number 41 million persons. It would be 35% larger than it is. Abortion has swept through the black community like a scythe, cutting down every fourth member."

Date posted: 0000-00-00

Lack of Individualized Counseling Regarding Risk Factors For Induced Abortion: A Violation of Informed Consent - Part 1

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate, that the information provided by abortion facilities to women, prior to first trimester suction curettage abortion purportedly describing the risks of abortion, fails to meet the necessary standards for informed consent. The only information provided is of a general nature, with the same information provided to all women. However the physical, psychological, social, and reproductive risks of abortion and informational needs vary greatly among women. Thus, there is a lack of informed consent because the information is not tailored to the particular risks or informational needs of an individual woman. In addition, the potential severity of particular risks is either downplayed by use of generalized terms, such as hospitalization or unspecified surgery, or omitted entirely.

Date posted: 0000-00-00