"Exciting News - Current Up-Dated Internationally Documented Human Embryology Now Online to Public"

Dianne N. Irving
Copyright February 24, 2011
Reproduced with Permission

The International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) has finally published online their latest documentation and update of the accurate facts of human embryology in their Terminologia Embryologica, now finally available to the public.

As most readers know, the accurate objective scientific facts of human embryology have been known, documented and updated internationally by human embryologists for many decades now, specifically as documented since 1942 by the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development,1 what Swiss human embryology refers to as the "Bureau of Standards" of human embryology.2 The documentation and updating is usually performed every few years by an international nomenclature committee on human embryology, i.e., the Terminologia Embryologica Committee, under the auspices of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA)3 and their Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT).4

FIPAT documents and updates not just the most current and accurate scientific facts of human embryology in its Terminologia Embryologica (TE), but also for its Terminologica Anatomica and its Terminologia Histologica. All three projects are already newly published in hard copy.5 They are now also online for public access. This article concerns only FIPAT's latest online Terminologia Embryologica (TE), which documents and reaffirms the accurate objective scientific facts of human embryology. All human embryologists are professionally expected to use this accurate nomenclature in their human embryology textbooks.

As newly documented once again by the international nomenclature committee on human embryology, Stage 1 of the Carnegie Stages describes the earliest single-cell human EMBRYO at three sub-stages of Stage 1: the penetrated oocyte/primordial embryo (Stage 1a), the ootid (Stage 1b), and the zygote at "syngamy" (Stage 1c). Obviously, the "zygote", which has no nucleus, at Stage 1c is not when a new living sexually reproduced human embryo/human being/human organism begins to exist. Rather, the new human being begins to exist at Stage 1a, when the sperm makes first contact and fuses with the oocyte at the beginning of the process of fertilization.6 Note as well that the scientifically erroneous and misleading term "pre-embryo" is rejected once again in a footnote:

"E2.,0.3, Embryo praegastrulationis [St. 1 ad 6a] The term pregastrulation embryo is useful because such an embryo has distinctive attributes. The foreshortened term 'pre-embryo', which has been used in legal and clinical contexts, is not recommended."7

But before copying the TE's Stages 1-5 of the early developing human embryo (at the end of this article), perhaps a brief listing of this international organization, its works, and its history would be helpful for those who are interested in more detailed information about FIAA [taken directly off their website]:8

This page presents the general documents now made available by FIPAT for public access online:

It is now possible, therefore, for the international public and agencies to access these currently updated objective scientific facts of human embryology in the TE online, allowing these objective facts to be the accurate basis and starting point for theories in philosophy, bioethics, theology, and in politics, public policy making, laws, guidelines and regulations that relate to the early developing human embryo. Scientist who are academically unfamiliar with and/or uncredentialed in the scientific field of human embryology per se may also find the information helpful. It will also allow those online websites that are using the name "Carnegie Stages" in their content to correct the facts of "human embryology" assumed to be in concert with the genuine Carnegie Stages but which differ significantly from them. It can also explain in more specific detail the "scientific facts" sometimes simplistically used even by human embryologists in their textbooks for purposes of diluting them for student teaching.

Terminologia Embryologica (new)

To use this new website, go to FIPAT, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/.

21 April 2010 TE PrePublication Page 10


Embryogenesis; Embryogeny Blastogenesis [St. 1-7]
Embryo [St. 1-13]
Pregasturlation embryo [St. 1-6a]
Pre-implantation embryo [St. 1-2]
Preblastocystic embryo [St. 1-2]

One-cell stage; Single cell embryo [St. 1]
**Penetrated oocyte; Definitive oocyte; Primordial embryo [St. 1a]
**Ootid; Ovum; Pronuclear embryo [St. 1b]
**Zygote; Syngamic embryo [St. 1c]

Cleaving zygote [St. 2]
.......Singleton; Single cyema
.......Dichorial di-amniotic monozygotic twins
Blastocyst [St. 3-5]
Free blastocyst [St. 3]
**Embryonic disc
.......Dorsal embryonic surface
.......Ventral embryonic surface
.......Singleton; Single cyema
.......Monochorial di-amniotic twins
Attaching blastocyst [St. 4]
**Singleton; Single cyema
**Monochorial di-amiotic twins
**Interstitial implantation
Implanted blastocyst; invading blastocyst; Previlious conceptus {St. 5]
**Singleton; Single cyema
**Monochorial mono-amniotic twins
**Invading blastocyst without trophoblastic lacunae [St. 5a]
**Invading blastocyst with isolated trophoblastic lacunae [St. 5b]
**Invading blastocyst with intercommunicating lacunae 'St. 5c]
.......Border of embryonic disc
.......Caudal pole of embryo; Caudal end of embryo
.......Rostral pole of embryo; Rostral end of embryo
.......Right side of embryo


1 See the website of the Human Development Anatomy Center: http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/hdac/Education_Projects.htm. This is also the home of the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development; see Carnegie Stage 1a,b,c at: http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/hdac/stage1.pdf; see all 23 stages of the early developing human embryo at: http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/hdac/Select_Stage_and_Lab_Manual.htm. Click into the "textbook" at the bottom left side of the screen to access more extensive details of each stage and the scientific references. See also human embryologist Dr. Raymond Gasser's new website at LSUHSC, the "Virtual Human Embryo" at: http://virtualhumanembryo.lsuhsc.edu/.

See also, D. N. Irving, "The Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development: Chart of all 23 Stages, and Detailed Descriptions of Carnegie Stages 1-6" (April 22, 2006), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_123carnegiestages1.html; see also, Irving and Kischer, "Scientific Response to Criticism of the California Human Rights Amendment as 'Protecting Fertilized Eggs'" (Dec. 9, 2009), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_173californiaamendment.html, and at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_175responsecalifornia.html. See objective scientific references for asexual human reproduction in, e.g., Irving and Kischer, "Scientific Response to Criticism of the California Human Rights Amendment as Protecting Fertilized Eggs'" (Dec. 9, 2009), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_173californiaamendment.html, and at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_175responsecalifornia.html. [Back]

2 Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001, p. ix. [Back]

3 See their official website at: http://www.ifaa.net/ [Back]

4 See official website for FIPAT, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/. [Back]

5 E.g., purchase at Amazon.com: Terminologia Anatomica: Combination Book and CD-ROM: International Anatomical Terminology [Hardcover], by Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT), at: http://www.amazon.com/Terminologia-Anatomica-Combination-International-Terminology/dp/0865778094/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1298519615&sr=1-1. [Back]

6 See Dianne N. Irving, "'Virtual Human Embryo'" - Zygote Is Stage 1c, Not Stage 1a" (Feb. 6, 2011), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_181viritualhumanembryo.html. [Back]

7 See footnote below chart on page 10, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/ViewTE/TEe02.html. [Back]

8 See full Chart with hyperlinks to this information at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/OpenDocPublic.html. [Back]

9 See History of FICAT, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/PDF%20documents/History%20FICAT.pdf. [Back]

10 See History of IFAA, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/PDF%20documents/History%20IFAA.pdf. [Back]

11 See Members of FICAT, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/PDF%20documents/Membership%20of%20FICAT.pdf. [Back]

12 See TA Preface, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/PDF%20documents/TA98%20Preface.pdf. [Back]

13 See : TA Acknowledgements, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/PDF%20documents/TA98%20Acknowledgements.pdf. [Back]

14 See TE Preface, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/PDF%20documents/TE%20Preface.pdf. [Back]

15 See TE Acknowledgements, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/PDF%20documents/TE%20Acknowledgements.pdf. [Back]

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