American Medical Association's "Narrow Definitions", Legal "Redefinitions" ... and Reproductive Cloning


1 American Medical Association, CEJA Report (Sept. 21, 2009), Opinion 2.145 on "Pre-embryo Splitting", at: [Back]

2 See Irving, "Accountability in research with persons with mental illness", Accountability in Research Nov. 1993, 3(1):1-17, at: [Back]

3 American Medical Association, Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA), Report June 1994, at: [Back]

4 See, e.g., "Leading bioethicist supports reproductive cloning", March 21, 2007,, at:; also, John Robertson: "A second and more limited way to create clones is to split the cells or blastomeres of an early multicelled embryo before the cells have begun to differentiate. Because each blastomere at this stage is in theory totipotent (that is, capable of producing an entire organism itself), the separated cells can become new embryos, all of which which have the same genome. ... The study thus demonstrated that experimental cloning or twinning of human embryos is potentially feasible as an aid to relieving infertility. ... Once it is shown that embryo splitting can produce normal offspring, the relative ease of the procedure and competition for parents will lead many IVF centers to offer it.", John A. Robertson, "The question of human cloning", Hastings Center Report, March-April, 1994 , at:;col1; Michael Kinsley, "Reason, faith and stem cells", Washington Post, Aug. 29, 2000, and also "Faith crucial in stem cell research", The Daily Yomiuri (Japan), Sept.5, 2000. See also endorsement by the first bioethics center, the Hastings Center: The term "reprogenetics" is coined in a recent "Special Supplement" of The Hastings Center Report (July/August 2003) at, the first sentence of which refers to reprogenetics as "one big embryo experiment". The term refers collectively to the converging of several scientific technologies, especially multiple artificial human reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF and cloning) and human genetics research - otherwise known as eugenics. The term is similar to such others as "trans-humanism", "post-humanism", "futurism", etc. - i.e., the remaking of human nature by the use of experimental reproductive and genetic techniques. Such are the stated goals of "nano/bio/info/cogno", supported by this government and many internationally popular "futuristic" programs, e.g., see Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance (National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, June 2002); you can find the report at: httop:// pre publication.pdf (or at [Back]

5 K. Illmensee, M. Levanduski, A. Vidali, N. Husami, and V.T. Goudas, "Human embryo twinning with applications in reproductive medicine", Fertility and Sterility, Feb. 11, 2009, PMID 19217091, at: See also: A. Katayama, "A Seminar on Human Cloning: Human Reproductive Cloning and Related Techniques: An Overview of the Legal Environment and Practitioner Attitudes", Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, Volume 18, Number 8 / August, 2001, pp. 442-450, at: See also: "Embryo splitting may be used to increase the potential fertility of couples requiring IVF: ..."The 30-40% greater chance of conception would reduce costs for the government, health authorities and patients, and reduce stress, time and complications for women having IVF treatment. Embryo splitting may also provide donor embryos for infertile couples that cannot conceive naturally or with IVF. The shortage of children for adoption and donor embryos may be overcome by the production of demi-embryos.", C. Wood, "Embryo splitting: a role in infertility?", Reprod Fertil Dev 2001; 13(1):91-3. [Back]

6 American Medical Association, CEJA Report (Sept. 21, 2009), Opinion 2.145 on "Pre-embryo Splitting", at: [Back]

7 See, e.g., Richard McCormick, S.J., "Who or what is the preembryo?", Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 1:1 (1991). In this paper McCormick draws heavily on the work of frog embryologist Clifford Grobstein, as well as from "an unpublished study of a research group of the Catholic Health Association entitled 'The Status and Use of the Human Preembryo', (p. 14).

The influence of the scientifically false McCormick/Grobstein term "pre-embryo" was (and still is) widespread even among Catholic scholars. In addition to the works of McCormick and Grobstein, see acceptance of the term "pre-embryo" also in: Andre E. Hellegers, "Fetal development," in Thomas A. Mappes and Jane S. Zembatty (eds.), Biomedical Ethics, (New York: Macmillan, 1981); Hellegers, "Fetal development", Theological Studies (1970), 31:3-9; Charles E. Curran, "Abortion: Contemporary debate in philosophical and religious ethics", in W. T. Reich (ed.), Encyclopedia of Bioethics 1 (London: The Free Press, 1978), pp. 17-26; Kevin Wildes, "Book Review: Human Life: Its Beginning and Development" (L'Harmattan, Paris: International Federation of Catholic Universities, 1988); Carlos Bedate and Robert Cefalo, "The zygote: To be or not be a person", Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (1989), 14:6:641; Robert C. Cefalo, "Book Review: Embryo Experimentation, Peter Singer et al (eds.); 'Eggs, embryos and ethics'", Hastings Center Report (1991), 21:5:41; Mario Moussa and Thomas A. Shannon, "The search for the new pineal gland: Brain life and personhood", The Hastings Center Report (1992), 22:3:30-37; Carol Tauer, The Moral Status of the Prenatal Human (Doctoral Dissertation in Philosophy; Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, 1981) (Sister Tauer's dissertation mentor was Richard McCormick; she later went on to become the ethics co-chair of the NIH Human Embryo Research Panel 1994); C. Tauer, "The tradition of probabilism and the moral status of the early embryo", in Patricia B. Jung and Thomas A. Shannon, Abortion and Catholicism (New York: Crossroad, 1988), pp. 54-84; Lisa S. Cahill, "Abortion, autonomy, and community", in Jung and Shannon, Abortion and Catholicism (1988), pp. 85-98; Joseph F. Donceel, "A liberal Catholic's view", in Jung and Shannon, Abortion and Catholicism (1988), pp. 48-53; H. Tristram Engelhardt, The Foundations of Bioethics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), p. 111; William A. Wallace, "Nature and human nature as the norm in medical ethics", in Edmund D. Pellegrino, John P. Langan and John Collins Harvey (eds.), Catholic Perspectives on Medical Morals (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishing, 1989), pp. 23-53; Norman Ford, When Did I Begin? (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 298; Antoine Suarez, "Hydatidiform moles and teratomas confirm the human identity of the preimplantation embryo", Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (1990), 15:627-635; Thomas J. Bole, III, "Metaphysical accounts of the zygote as a person and the veto power of facts", Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (1989), 14:647-653; Bole, "Zygotes, souls, substances, and persons", Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (1990), 15:637-652.

See also: See Richard McCormick's testimony in The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research; Report and Recommendations; Research on the Fetus; U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1975, pp. 34-35; McCormick, How Brave a New World? (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press), p. 76; McCormick, "Proxy consent in the experimentation situation", Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (1974), 18:2-20; Paul Ramsey's testimony in The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research; Report and Recommendations; Research on the Fetus; U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1975, pp. 35-36.

The use of the term "pre-embryo" has been quite widespread for decades -- nationally and internationally. In addition to the Catholic scholars who accepted the use of the term "pre-embryo" as noted above, a partial list of secular bioethics writers who also accepted the use of the term in these debates includes: Paul Ramsey, "Reference points in deciding about abortion" in J.T. Noonan (ed.), The Morality of Abortion (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970), pp. 60-100, esp. p. 75; John Robertson, "Extracorporeal embryos and the abortion debate", Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy (1986), 2;53;53-70; Robertson, "Symbolic issues in embryo research", The Hastings Center Report (1995, Jan./Feb.), 37-38; Robertson, "The case of the switched embryos", The Hastings Center Report (1995), 25:6:13-24; Howard W. Jones, "And just what is a preembryo?", Fertility and Sterility 52:189-91; Jones and C. Schroder, "The process of human fertilization: Implications for moral status", Fertility and Sterility (August 1987), 48:2:192; Clifford Grobstein, "The early development of human embryos", Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (1985), 10:213-236; also, Science and the Unborn (New York: Basic Books, 1988), p. 61; Michael Tooley, "Abortion and infanticide", in The Rights and Wrongs of Abortion, M. Cohen et al (eds.) (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1974), pp. 59 and 64; Peter Singer and Helga Kuhse, "The ethics of embryo research", Law, Medicine and Health Care (1987),14:13-14; Kuhse and Singer, "For sometimes letting - and helping - die", Law, Medicine and Health Care (1986), 3:40:149-153; Kuhse and Singer, Should The Baby Live? The Problem of Handicapped Infants (Oxford University Press, 1985), p.138; Singer, "Taking life: Abortion", in Practical Ethics (London: Cambridge University Press, 1981), pp. 122-123; Peter Singer, Helga Kuhse, Stephen Buckle, Karen Dawson, Pascal Kasimba (eds.), Embryo Experimentation (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990); R.M. Hare, "When does potentiality count? A comment on Lockwood," Bioethics (1988), 2:3:214; Michael Lockwood, "When does life begin?", in Michael Lockwood (ed.), Moral Dilemma's in Modern Medicine (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), p. 10; Hans-Martin Sass, "Brain life and brain death: A proposal for normative agreement," Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (1989), 14:45-59; Michael Lockwood, "Warnock versus Powell (and Harradine): When does potentiality count?" Bioethics (1988), 2:3:187 213.

See also the use of the term "pre-embryo" in many national and international documents (a small sample): Ethics Advisory Board (1979) Report and Conclusions: HEW Support of Research Involving Human in vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, p. 101; National Institutes of Health Human Embryo Research Panel Meetings (Washington, D.C.: NIH, 1994), Feb. 2 meeting, pp. 27, 31, 50-80, 85-87, 104-106; in the Feb. 3, 1994 meeting, pp. 6-55; April 11 meeting, pp. 23-41, 9-22. See also, Dame Mary Warnock, Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilization and Embryology, (London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1984), pp. 27 and 63; British House of Lords, "Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Research Purposes) Regulations 2001"; Commonwealth of Australia, Select Senate Committee on the Human Embryo Experimentation Bill, (Canberra, Australia: Official Hansard Report, Commonwealth Government Printer, 1986); Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, On the Use of Human Embryos and Foetuses for Diagnostic, Therapeutic, Scientific, Industrial and Commercial Purposes, Recommendation 1046, 1986; and On the Use of Human Embryos and Foetuses in Scientific Research, Recommendation 1000, 1989; Ethics Committee of the American Fertility Society (AFS), "Ethical Considerations of the New Reproductive Technologies", Fertility and Sterility (1986), 46:27S. See also Jonsen, esp. Chapters 4 and 12. [Back]

8 Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001). [Back]

9 C. Ward Kischer, "Letter to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)" (July 17, 2005), at: [Back]

10 Lee Silver, Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World, Avon Books, 1997, p. 39. [Back]

11 C. Ward Kischer, "The Big Lie in Human Embryology" (Sept. 17, 2009), at: [Back]

12 Wilhelm His, Anatomie menschlicher Embryonen, 3 vols. (Leipzig: Vogel, 1880-1885). [Back]

13 See the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development, p. 9, at: The Carnegie Stages of Early Human Development is the basis for the Nomina Embryologica which was part of the larger Nomina Anatomica for decades until 1989. In 1999 the name was changed by the International Associations of Anatomists to Terminologia Embryologica and Terminologia Anatomica, which was published in 1999 by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) and is available for sale in book or CD-Rom format at: For on-line access to information about the international Nomina Embryologica Committee and the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Development, see the U.S. national websites at the National Museum of Health and Medicine, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology: The National Museum of Health and Medicine, at:; Human Developmental Anatomy Center, Developmental Anatomy, at:; and The Carnegie Collection of Embryology, The Carnegie Stages of Early Human Development, at:, and at [Back]

14 American Medical Association, Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA), Report June 1994, at: [Back]

15 Ibid. [Back]

16 See for example (the tip of the iceberg): "In blastomere separation, scientists fertilize an egg cell with a sperm cell in a laboratory dish. The resulting embryo is allowed to divide until it forms a mass of about four cells. Scientists remove the outer coating of the embryo and place it in a special solution that causes the individual cells of the embryo, known as blastomeres, to separate. Scientists then put each blastomere in culture, where it forms an embryo containing the same genetic makeup as the original embryo. Each new embryo can then be implanted into the uterus of a surrogate mother to develop during a normal pregnancy. In blastocyst division, scientists allow a fertilized egg to divide until it forms a mass of about 32 to 150 cells, known as a blastocyst. Scientists then split the blastocyst in two and implant the two halves into the uterus of a surrogate mother. The two halves develop as identical twins.", "Cloning," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009, Reviewed By: Ian Wilmut, Ph.D., D.Sc., Head, Department of Gene Expression and Development, Roslin Institute, at:

"During cloning, biological materials are duplicated and created with produces an organism that is an exact copy of the first. Cloning happens naturally through the production of identical twins. The process of cloning called artificial embryo twinning follows the same process of identical twin formation. In artificial embryo twinning, fertilization takes place in a petri dish and the embryo is separated manually, only then are the individual cells are allowed to develop." Artificial Embryo Twinning, at:

"Embryo splitting: The splitting of young embryos into several sections, each of which develops into an animal. A form of animal cloning, i.e., of producing animals that are genetically identical", in " Glossary of biotechnology and genetic engineering", Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, at:

"Cloning: The process in which an organism produces one or more genetically alike copies of itself by asexual means. Cloning may occur by propagation of cuttings, as in the case of plants; continual budding, in hydra; fission, in bacteria and protozoa; or partogenic asexual reproduction in aphids. In higher order animals, such as mammals, cloning can be carried out by somatic cell nuclear transfer. A form of cloning occurs naturally in mammals in the form of identical twins and triplets. Harvard Stem Cell Institute, at:

National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Planning and Policy, "CLONING: Present Uses and Promises", April 27, 1998), at: "Cloning and somatic cell nuclear transfer are not synonymous. Cloning is the production of a precise genetic copy of DNA, a cell, or an individual plant or animal. Cloning can be successfully accomplished by using a number of different technologies. Somatic cell nuclear transfer is one specific technology that can be used for cloning." See also: Australia, The Cloning of Humans (Prevention) Bill 2001 (Queensland): "Cloning can occur naturally in the asexual reproduction of plants, the formation of identical twins and the multiplication of cells in the natural process of repair. The cloning of DNA, cells, tissues, organs and whole individuals is also achievable with artificial technologies. ... The cloning of a cell or an individual may be achieved through a number of techniques, including: molecular cloning ..., blastomere separation (sometimes called "twinning" after the naturally occurring process that creates identical twins): splitting a developing embryo soon after fertilisation of the egg by a sperm (sexual reproduction) to give rise to two or more embryos. The resulting organisms are identical twins (clones) containing DNA from both the mother and the father. ... somatic cell nuclear transfer: the transfer of the nucleus of a somatic cell into an unfertilised egg whose nucleus, and thus its genetic material, has been removed. A number of scientific review bodies have noted that the term "cloning" is applicable in various contexts, as a result of the development of a range of cloning techniques with varying applications", at: [Back]

17 See, e.g.: "The embryo enters the uterine cavity after about half a week ... Each cell (blastomere) is considered to be still totipotent (capable, on isolation, of forming a complete embryo), and separation of these early cells is believed to account for one-third of cases of monozygotic twinning." (p. 37) "... Biopsy of an embryo can be performed by removing one cell from a 4-cell, or two cells from an 8-cell, embryo. This does not seem to decrease the developmental capacity of the remaining cells." [O'Rahilly and Muller 2001, p.37]

"Of the experimental techniques used to demonstrate regulative properties of early embryos, the simplest is to separate the blastomeres of early cleavage-stage embryos and determine whether each one can give rise to an entire embryo. This method has been used to demonstrate that single blastomeres, from two- and sometimes four-cell embryos can form normal embryos, ... " (p. 44); " ... Some types of twinning represent a natural experiment that demonstrates the highly regulative nature of early human embryos, ..." (p. 48); "... Monozygotic twins and some triplets, on the other hand, are the product of one fertilized egg. They arise by the subdivision and splitting of a single embryo. Although monozygotic twins could ... arise by the splitting of a two-cell embryo, it is commonly accepted that most arise by the subdivision of the inner cell mass in a blastocyst. Because the majority of monozygotic twins are perfectly normal, the early human embryo can obviously be subdivided and each component regulated to form a normal embryo." (p. 49) [Carlson 1999]

"If the splitting occurred during cleavage -- for example, if the two blastomeres produced by the first cleavage division become separated -- the monozygotic twin blastomeres will implant separately, like dizygotic twin blastomeres, and will not share fetal membranes. Alternatively, if the twins are formed by splitting of the inner cell mass within the blastocyst, they will occupy the same chorion but will be enclosed by separate amnions and will use separate placentae, each placenta developing around the connecting stalk of its respective embryo. Finally, if the twins are formed by splitting of a bilaminar germ disc, they will occupy the same amnion." (p. 325) [Larsen 1998]

"Another means of demonstrating the regulative properties of early mammalian embryos is to dissociate mouse embryos into separate blastomeres and then to combine the blastomeres of two or three embryos. The combined blastomeres soon aggregate and reorganize to become a single large embryo, which then goes on to become a normal-appearing tetraparental or hexaparental mouse. By various techniques of making chimeric embryos, it is even possible to combine blastomeres to produce interspecies chimeras (e.g., a sheep-goat)." (p. 45); "... The relationship between the position of the blastomeres and their ultimate developmental fate was incorporated into the inside-outside hypothesis. The outer blastomeres ultimately differentiate into the trophoblast, whereas the inner blastomeres form the inner cell mass, from which the body of the embryo arises. Although this hypothesis has been supported by a variety of experiments, the mechanisms by which the blastomeres recognize their positions and then differentiate accordingly have remained elusive and are still little understood. If marked blastomeres from disaggregated embryos are placed on the outside of another early embryo, they typically contribute to the formation of the trophoblast. Conversely, if the same marked cells are introduced into the interior of the host embryo, they participate in formation of the inner cell mass. Outer cells in the early mammalian embryo are linked by tight and gap junctions ... Experiments of this type demonstrate that the developmental potential or potency (the types of cells that a precursor cell can form) of many cells is greater than their normal developmental fate (the types of cells that a precursor cell normally forms)." (p. 45); " ... Classic strategies for investigating developmental properties of embryos are (1) removing a part and determining the way the remainder of the embryo compensates for the loss (such experiments are called deletion experiments) and (2) adding a part and determining the way the embryo integrates the added material into its overall body plan (such experiments are called addition experiments). Although some deletion experiments have been done, the strategy of addition experiments has proved to be most fruitful in elucidating mechanisms controlling mammalian embryogenesis." (p. 46). [Carlson 1999] (emphasis added) [Back]

18 Dr. Jamie Grifo, a leading infertility researcher at New York University, as quoted in Stephen Smith, "Cloning bans could have impact on infertility treatments", Jan. 9, 1998, at: [Back]

19 See Irving, "Analysis: California's Current Cloning Law Allows Both 'Therapeutic' and 'Reproductive' Cloning; Sets Up Arbitrary Regulatory Committee" (Oct. 26, 2004), at: [Back]

20 Tom Strachan and Andrew P. Read, Human Molecular Genetics 2 (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1999), pp. 508-509. [Back]

21 See for example: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, "Ethics", in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2nd ed., No. 97 (2004), pp. 957, 958; Erroneously defines "preembryo" as "product of fertilization before 14 days and arrival of primitive streak"; American Fertility Society, Ethics Committee, "Ethical Considerations of the New Reproductive Technologies," Fertility and Sterility 46, Supplement 1 (September1986): 27S, (name changed to American Society of Reproductive Medicine in 1990s; still publish their scientific journal, Fertility and Sterility; chairs of ethics committees included Richard McCormick, S.J. and Clifford Grobstein); American Society of Reproductive Medicine, "Chapter 16: Experimentation on the Preembryo," Fertility and Sterility 87, no. 4, Supplement 1 (April 2007): S52-S58; British House of Lords, The Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Research Purposes) Regulations 2001, no. 188, summary available from (now out of print but can order photocopies; see Irving 2001b for details of the regulations, based on pre-embryo); California Advisory Committee, Cloning Californians: Report of the California Advisory Committee on Human Cloning (Sacramento, Calif. January 11, 2002); Chaired by Irving Weissman, terms "preembryo" and "ball of cells" to refer to the early embryo used throughout report, available from; Gerontology Research Group, GRG Editorial: "Let's Defuse the Rhetoric by Sharpening Our Vocabulary" (December 2001), available from; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, Committee on the Basic Science Foundations of Medically Assisted Conception, Report of a Study and Workshop Papers, "Medically Assisted Conception: An Agenda for Research," (1989), available from; National Academy of Sciences, Commission on Life Sciences, "Comparison of Stem Cell Production With Reproductive Cloning," in Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine (2002a), available from; National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Reproductive Cloning: How Is Reproductive Cloning Done? (2002b), available from; National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Cloning Human Beings: Report and Recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (Rockville, Md. June 1997), p. 3; National Institutes of Health, Human Embryo Research Panel Meetings (Washington, D.C. 1994), using term "pre-embryo" in: February 2 meeting, pp. 27, 31, 50-80, 85-87, 104-106; February 3, 1994 meeting, pp. 6-55; April 11 meeting, pp. 23-41, 9-22. [Back]

22 H.R.1050, "Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2009". [Back]

23 See Irving, "University Faculty for Life: Letter of Concern to Sen. Brownback and Congressman Weldon Re the 'Human Cloning Bill 2001'" (May 27, 2001), at:; see also Irving, "Analysis: Stearns' Congressional Human Cloning Fairy Tale 'Ban'; New Age and Transhumanist Legislation for 'Converging Technologies'?" (Sept. 8, 2004), at: [Back]

24 H.R.1050, "Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2009". [Back]

25 For a 31-page list of references of different kinds of human cloning techniques already published and recorded on PubMed, please see: Irving, "Scientific References, Human Genetic Engineering (Including Cloning): Artificial Human Embryos, Oocytes, Sperms, Chromosomes and Genes" (May 25, 2004), at: See also Irving: "So You Think That 'Reproductive Cloning' Isn't Done Yet? Guess Again" (July 18, 2008), at:; "Ethical and Scientific Concerns About Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research -- Yamanaka and Thomson" (June 1, 2008), at:; "What Human Embryo? Funniest Mental Gymnastics from Medicine and Research" (Oct. 14, 2004), at:; "Analysis of Legislative and Regulatory Chaos in the U.S.: Asexual Human Reproduction and Genetic Engineering" (Oct. 20, 2004), at:; "Playing God by manipulating man: Facts and frauds of human cloning" (October 4, 2003), presented twice at the Missouri Catholic Conference Annual Assembly Workshop, Jefferson City, MO, at:; "Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT" (July 23, 2005), at:; "Which ethics for science and public policy?", Accountability in Research 1993, 3(2-3):77-99, at:; "The Impact of 'Scientific Misinformation' on Other Fields: Philosophy, Theology, Biomedical Ethics, Public Policy", Accountability in Research, April 1993, 2(4):243-272, at: [Back]

26 Beriain I. de Miguel, "The human embryo after Dolly: new practices for new times", Law Hum Genome Rev, 2008 Jul-Dec; (29):45-65, PMID 19334406, at: [Back]

27 See Irving, "Analysis: California's Current Cloning Law Allows Both 'Therapeutic' and 'Reproductive' Cloning; Sets Up Arbitrary Regulatory Committee" (Oct. 26, 2004), at: Also, Irving, "Analysis: Stearns' Congressional Human Cloning Fairy Tale 'Ban'; New Age and Transhumanist Legislation for 'Converging Technologies'?" (Sept. 8, 2004), at: [Back]

28 E.g., Anne Kiessling, "What Is an Embryo?", Connecticut Law Review, Vol. 36:1051-1092, at: [Back]

29 Howard W. Jones, "What is an embryo?", Fertility and Sterility [2002.77:658-659]. [Back]

30 C. Ward Kischer, "There is no such thing as a pre-embryo" (April 9, 2003), at: [Back]

31 "Human iPS Cells Reprogrammed Into Germ Cell Precursors" (January 28, 2009), Stem Cell Research News, at:; also, Will Fletcher, "Adult stem cells may lead to new infertility treatment" (Feb 2, 2009), BioNews 493, at: See also, H. Moore and B. Aflatoonian, "From stem cells to spermatozoa and back", 2007, Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl; 65:19-32, PMID: 17644952, at:$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmed; see also, S. Assou, J. De Vos, and S. Hamamah, "Human embryo stem cells and gametes: science fiction or near future?", August 6, 2008, Gynecol Obstet Fertil., 2008 Sep;36(9):908-12, PMID: 18693127, at: [Back]

32 Quoted in Sally Lehrman, "It is time to give up on therapeutic cloning? a Q&A with Ian Wilmut" (July 22, 2008), Scientific American, at: [Back]

33 David Solter, in Jeremy Laurance, "The future of fertility" (July 17, 2008),, at: [Back]

34 Zev Rosenwaks, in Jeremy Laurance, "The future of fertility" (July 17, 2008),, at: [Back]

1, 2,